email a friend
printable version
LC
Hartlaub's Gull Larus hartlaubii

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 292 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 70,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.9 - - -
Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Namibia Native Extant Yes      
South Africa Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Namibia Lüderitz Bay islands site factsheet
South Africa Dassen Island site factsheet
South Africa Dyer Island Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa False Bay Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Lower Berg river wetlands site factsheet
South Africa Orange River Mouth Wetlands site factsheet
South Africa Rietvlei Wetland Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Robben Island National Historical Monument site factsheet
South Africa Verlorenvlei Estuary site factsheet
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Salt Exploitation Sites suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries major resident
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Cape Fox (Vulpes chama) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Cape Grey Mongoose (Galerella pulverulenta) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Yellow Mongoose (Cynictis penicillata) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Botulism (Clostridium botulinum) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Larus hartlaubii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls, Terns, Skimmers)
Species name author Bruch, 1853
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 70,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change