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LC
Brown-headed Gull Larus brunnicephalus

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
The breeding range of the Brown-headed Gull is the mountains of south-central Asia from Turkestan in the west, south-west Gansu (China) in the east, and the Pamirs and Tibet in the south. It winters on the coast of India, northern Sri Lanka and south-east Asia, and sparingly to the west of India up to the Arabian Peninsula (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Trend justification
Although Wetlands International consider the current population trend to be unknown, it is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Ecology
This species breeds on islands in large, cold high altitude lakes of varying salinity or in neighbouring marshes, frequenting coasts and rivers outside the breeding season which begins in May. Colonies form from 50 pairs up to several thousand. It feeds on fish, shrimps and offal when wintering, and has a large diet including rodents, sewage, grubs, slugs and earthworms during the breeding season (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

References
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Text account compilers
Calvert, R., Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Larus brunnicephalus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls and terns)
Species name author Jerdon, 1840
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,130,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species