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VU
Iphis Monarch Pomarea iphis

Justification
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it is confined to one tiny island and is at risk from the introduction of alien species, especially black rats.

Taxonomic source(s)
Cibois, A.; Thibault, J.-C.; Pasquet, E. 2004. Biogeography of Eastern Polynesian Monarchs (Pomarea): an endemic genus close to extinction. Condor 106: 837-851.

Taxonomic note
Pomarea iphis (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into P. iphis and P. fluxa following Cibois et al. (2004).

Distribution and population
Pomarea iphis is endemic to the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. It is restricted to Ua Huka, where several hundred pairs were estimated in 1975 (Holyoak and Thibault 1984), and 500-1,250 in 1998, at a mean density of 2-5 pairs/ha (Thibault and Meyer 2001).

Population justification
Several hundred pairs were estimated in 1975 by Holyoak and Thibault (1984), and 500-1,250 pairs were estimated in 1998, at a mean density of 2-5 pairs/ha (Thibault and Meyer 2001).

Trend justification
There are no known threats and the population is estimated to be stable, based on survey data.

Ecology
On Ua Huka (c.30% forested), breeding birds were found from 30 m to 650 m (non-breeders to 840 m) in all native low- to mid-elevation moist and wet forest in the south and locally in lowland dry forest (with Pisonia grandis) on the eastern coast (Thibault and Meyer 2001). It forages in dense brush, gleaning insects from branches or hawking them in dark, shaded areas beneath brush-covered canopy (Pratt et al. 1987).

Threats
On Ua Huka, there are no current threats, although Pacific rats Rattus exulans have always been present. In 1998 the Black Rat Rattus rattus was thought to be present (Thibault and Meyer 2000) on an adjacent islet (Teuaua) but was subsequently found to be absent (Faulquier et al. 2008). Habitat degradation by cyclones is a minor cause for concern. Although overgrazing by feral goats and cattle is a problem in some forested areas in the centre of the island, the valley habitat remains in good condition and so overgrazing is not currently thought to be a threat.

Conservation Actions Underway
Intensive trapping campaigns were performed from 2008 to 2011 and indicate that R. rattus is still absent from Ua Huka (Faulquier et al. 2008, Faulquier et al. 2009a,b, Champeau et al. 2010, Champeau et al. 2011).  In 2009, biosecurity measures were implemented on Ua Huka (rat bait-stations were installed on the 3 wharves of the island) in order to prevent the establishment of the Black Rat Rattus rattus and these actions continue to be maintained (Faulquier et al. 2009a,b, Champeau et al. 2010, Champeau et al. 2011).
Conservation Actions Proposed
On Ua Huka, resurvey the population to ascertain any trends. Take precautions to prevent the establishment of R. rattus (including continuing to maintain rat bait-stations). Continue to survey for black rat R. rattus (P. Raust in litt. 1999) and assess any other threats. On Teuaua, attempt to eradicate R. rattus again.


References
Champeau J., Albar G., Autai T., Sulpice G., Gouni A. 2010. Deuxième vérification du succès de l’éradication du Rat du Pacifique (Rattus exulans) de l’îlot Teuaua et suivi de l’écosystème (Ua Huka, Marquises). Société d’Ornithologie de Polynésie, Tahiti, Polynésie Française.

Champeau J., Sulpice G., Autai T., Gouni A. 2011. Compte-rendu de mission sur l’îlot Teuaua. Société d’Ornithologie de Polynésie, Tahiti, Polynésie Française.

Faulquier L., Chapuis J.-L., Pisanu B., Lamalle R., Ohu N., Koheatiu B., Gouni A. 2008. Etude de faisabilité pour l’éradication de deux îlots satellites de l’île de Ua Huka (Marquises, Polynésie française). Société d’Ornithologie de Polynésie, Tahiti, Polynésie Française.

Faulquier L., Gouni A., Pascal M., Lorvelec O., Vidal E., Chapuis J.-L., Pisanu B. & Courchamp F. 2009. Protection des oiseaux marins par l’éradication de la population de Rats du Pacifique (Rattus exulans) de l’îlot Teuaua, Archipel des Marquises. . 11ème Inter-congrès des Sciences du Pacifique & 2nd Assises de la recherche française dans le Pacifique 2-6 mars 2009, Tahiti, Polynésie Française.

Holyoak, D. T.; Thibault, J. -C. 1984. Contribution à l'étude des oiseaux de Polynésie orientale. Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle - Serie A: Zoologie 127: 1-209.

Pratt, H. D.; Bruner, P. L.; Berrett, D. G. 1987. A field guide to the birds of Hawaii and the tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Thibault, J. -C. 1989. L'avifaune des îles Eiao et Hatuta'a (Polynésie, Pacifique Sud): modifications intervenues au XXe siècle. L'Oiseau et la Revue Française d'Ornithologie 59: 305.

Thibault, J.-C.; Meyer, J.-Y. 2000. The arrival of the black rat (Rattus rattus) on Fatuiva, Marquesas Islands. Bulletin de la Société d'Ornithologie de Polynésie (Te Manu) 31: 5-7.

Thibault, J.-C.; Meyer, J.-Y. 2001. Contemporary extinction and population declines of the monarchs (Pomarea spp.) in French Polynesia, South Pacific. Oryx 35: 73-80.

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Derhé, M., Mahood, S., Temple, H.

Contributors
Raust, P., Faulquier, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pomarea iphis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Iphis monarch (Pomarea iphis) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Monarchidae (Monarchs)
Species name author Murphy & Mathews, 1928
Population size 1000-2499 mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 80 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species