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Short-toed Snake-eagle Circaetus gallicus
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2006 Least Concern
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,880,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-200000 poor Estimated 2012
Population trend Stable Suspected -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.9 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 17,600-20,900 breeding pairs, equating to 35,100-41,800 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 34% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 103,000-123,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It is placed in the band 100,000 to 200,000 mature individuals.
Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population is considered Stable (BirdLife International 2015). However declines have been reported in West Africa (Thiollay 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes  
Albania Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Algeria Native Extant        
Andorra Native Extant Yes      
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Vagrant Extant        
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes      
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Benin Native Extant        
Bhutan Vagrant Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Cambodia Vagrant Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Central African Republic Native Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Cyprus Vagrant Extant        
Czech Republic Native Extant        
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant Yes      
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Finland Vagrant Extant        
France Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Germany Vagrant Extant Yes      
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant Yes   Yes  
India Native Extant Yes      
Indonesia Native Extant Yes      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant Yes      
Iraq Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Israel Native Extant Yes      
Italy Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Jordan Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Laos Vagrant Extant        
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Lesotho Vagrant Extant        
Liberia Native Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes      
Malaysia Vagrant Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Vagrant Extant Yes      
Mauritania Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Mongolia Vagrant Extant        
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Morocco Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Vagrant Extant        
Niger Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Oman Native Extant     Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant Yes      
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Native Extant Yes      
Qatar Native Extant     Yes  
Romania Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Sierra Leone Vagrant Extant        
Singapore Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant Yes      
Slovenia Native Extant Yes      
Somalia Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant Yes Yes    
Spain Native Extant     Yes Yes
Sudan Native Extant        
Sweden Vagrant Extant        
Switzerland Native Extant Yes      
Syria Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Timor-Leste Native Extant       Yes
Togo Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant Yes      
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes  
United Arab Emirates Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Vietnam Native Extant        
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Zambia Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Armenia Meghri site factsheet
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau site factsheet
Bulgaria Dobrostan site factsheet
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain site factsheet
Bulgaria Lomovete site factsheet
Bulgaria Mesta Valley site factsheet
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau site factsheet
Bulgaria Rupite site factsheet
Bulgaria Sakar site factsheet
Bulgaria Strandzha site factsheet
Hungary Aggtelek Karst site factsheet
Hungary Bükk site factsheet
Hungary Gerecse site factsheet
Hungary Mátra site factsheet
Hungary Zemplén Mountains site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Demir Kapija Gorge site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Lake Tikvesh site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Mariovo site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica site factsheet
Portugal Arraiolos site factsheet
Portugal Cabeção site factsheet
Portugal Gerês mountains site factsheet
Portugal Luzianes site factsheet
Portugal Malcata mountains site factsheet
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains site factsheet
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos site factsheet
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão site factsheet
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Monchique site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões site factsheet
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão site factsheet
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal site factsheet
Portugal Upper River Tejo site factsheet
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi site factsheet
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei site factsheet
Romania Babadag wood site factsheet
Romania Caraş gorge - Semenic Mountains site factsheet
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului site factsheet
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley site factsheet
Romania Hagieni forest site factsheet
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel site factsheet
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa site factsheet
Romania Stepa Casimcea site factsheet
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands site factsheet
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters site factsheet
Serbia Golija site factsheet
Serbia Kopaonik site factsheet
Serbia Sara mountain site factsheet
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka site factsheet
Slovakia Slovenský karst site factsheet
Slovakia Vihorlat site factsheet
Slovenia Karst site factsheet
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley site factsheet
Slovenia Vipavski rob site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Desert Hot Suitable non-breeding
Desert Hot Suitable breeding
Forest Temperate Suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate Suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry Major non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry Major breeding
Grassland Temperate Major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate Major breeding
Savanna Dry Suitable breeding
Savanna Dry Suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation Suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation Suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry Suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Subsistence, National
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Circaetus gallicus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/09/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/09/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1788)
Population size 100000-200000 mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,880,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment