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Short-toed Snake-eagle Circaetus gallicus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2006 Least Concern
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6,880,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 51000-156000 poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.9 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 8400-13000 breeding pairs, equating to 25,200-39,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 51,400-156,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.
Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes
Albania Native Extant Yes   Yes
Algeria Native Extant      
Andorra Native Extant Yes    
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Austria Vagrant Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes    
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Belarus Native Extant Yes    
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Benin Native Extant      
Bhutan Vagrant Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes    
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Cambodia Vagrant Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Central African Republic Native Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes    
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant Yes   Yes
Cyprus Vagrant Extant      
Czech Republic Native Extant      
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant Yes    
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Finland Vagrant Extant      
France Native Extant Yes   Yes
Gambia Native Extant      
Georgia Native Extant Yes   Yes
Germany Vagrant Extant Yes    
Ghana Native Extant      
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes Yes
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant Yes   Yes
India Native Extant Yes    
Indonesia Native Extant Yes    
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant Yes    
Iraq Native Extant Yes   Yes
Israel Native Extant Yes    
Italy Native Extant Yes   Yes
Jordan Native Extant Yes   Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Laos Vagrant Extant      
Latvia Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant Yes   Yes
Lesotho Vagrant Extant      
Liberia Native Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant Yes    
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes    
Malaysia Vagrant Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Malta Vagrant Extant Yes    
Mauritania Native Extant      
Moldova Native Extant Yes   Yes
Mongolia Vagrant Extant      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes    
Morocco Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Netherlands Vagrant Extant      
Niger Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Oman Native Extant     Yes
Pakistan Native Extant Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant      
Poland Native Extant Yes    
Portugal Native Extant Yes    
Qatar Native Extant     Yes
Romania Native Extant Yes   Yes
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant Yes    
Sierra Leone Vagrant Extant      
Singapore Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant Yes    
Slovenia Native Extant Yes    
Somalia Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant Yes Yes  
Spain Native Extant     Yes
Sudan Native Extant      
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Switzerland Native Extant Yes    
Syria Native Extant Yes   Yes
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes    
Tanzania Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Timor-Leste Native Extant      
Togo Native Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Uganda Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant     Yes
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    
Vietnam Native Extant      
Western Sahara Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes
Zambia Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Armenia Meghri site factsheet
Belarus Al'manskija baloty site factsheet
Belarus Balota Maročna site factsheet
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik site factsheet
Belarus Janka river floodplain site factsheet
Belarus Kaz'jany site factsheet
Belarus L'va floodplain site factsheet
Belarus Polesie Reserve site factsheet
Belarus Staraja Vic' site factsheet
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau site factsheet
Bulgaria Dobrostan site factsheet
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain site factsheet
Bulgaria Lomovete site factsheet
Bulgaria Mesta Valley site factsheet
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau site factsheet
Bulgaria Rupite site factsheet
Bulgaria Sakar site factsheet
Bulgaria Strandzha site factsheet
Croatia Special Ornithological Reserves on Cres island site factsheet
France Arjuzanx site factsheet
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune site factsheet
France Basses Corbières site factsheet
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin site factsheet
France Champ de Tir du Poteau site factsheet
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides site factsheet
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan site factsheet
France Forêt de Saou site factsheet
France Gorges de la Dordogne site factsheet
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants site factsheet
France Gorges de la Truyère site factsheet
France Gorges du Tarn et de la Jonte site factsheet
France Haut Val d'Allier site factsheet
France Hautes Corbières site factsheet
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais site factsheet
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes site factsheet
France Les Couzes Nord site factsheet
France Les Couzes Sud site factsheet
France Massif du Canigou-Carança site factsheet
France Montagne Sainte-Victoire site factsheet
France Parc National de la Vanoise site factsheet
France Parc National des Cévennes site factsheet
France Parc National des Ecrins site factsheet
France Parc National du Mercantour site factsheet
France Plaine du Forez site factsheet
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes site factsheet
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux site factsheet
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire site factsheet
Georgia Iori Region site factsheet
Georgia Meskheti site factsheet
Greece Akarnanika mountains site factsheet
Greece Antikhassia mountains and Meteora site factsheet
Greece Central part of Zagori and Mount Mitsikeli site factsheet
Greece East Lakonia mountains site factsheet
Greece Filiouri river valley and east Rodopi mountains site factsheet
Greece Mount Falakro site factsheet
Greece Mount Othrys site factsheet
Greece Protected area of Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli forest site factsheet
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture site factsheet
Greece South-west peninsula-petrified forest, Lesvos site factsheet
Greece Timfi (Gamila) and Smolikas mountains site factsheet
Hungary Aggtelek Karst site factsheet
Hungary Bükk site factsheet
Hungary Gerecse site factsheet
Hungary Mátra site factsheet
Hungary Zemplén Mountains site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Demir Kapija Gorge site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Lake Tikvesh site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Mariovo site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica site factsheet
Portugal Arraiolos site factsheet
Portugal Cabeção site factsheet
Portugal Gerês mountains site factsheet
Portugal Luzianes site factsheet
Portugal Malcata mountains site factsheet
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains site factsheet
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos site factsheet
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão site factsheet
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Monchique site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões site factsheet
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão site factsheet
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal site factsheet
Portugal Upper River Tejo site factsheet
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi site factsheet
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei site factsheet
Romania Babadag wood site factsheet
Romania Caraş gorge - Semenic Mountains site factsheet
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului site factsheet
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley site factsheet
Romania Hagieni forest site factsheet
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel site factsheet
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa site factsheet
Romania Stepa Casimcea site factsheet
Russia (European) Dono-Archedinskiye sands site factsheet
Russia (European) Irendyk ridge site factsheet
Russia (European) Nerussa - Desna woodland site factsheet
Russia (European) Shaitan-Tau ridge site factsheet
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters site factsheet
Serbia Prokletije site factsheet
Serbia Stara mountain-Vidlic site factsheet
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka site factsheet
Slovakia Slovenský karst site factsheet
Slovakia Vihorlat site factsheet
Slovenia Karst site factsheet
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley site factsheet
Slovenia Vipavski rob site factsheet
Spain Alcubierre and Sigena mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Alt Pallars site factsheet
Spain Babia-Somiedo site factsheet
Spain Burete, Cambrón and Espuña mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Campo de Argañán site factsheet
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Enguera mountain range-La Canal de Navarrés site factsheet
Spain Fuentes Carrionas site factsheet
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Guara mountain range site factsheet
Spain Izki mountains site factsheet
Spain La Cabrera mountain range site factsheet
Spain Lerida steppes site factsheet
Spain Lower course of the river Matarraña-Ribarroja site factsheet
Spain María mountain range-Los Vélez site factsheet
Spain Monfragüe site factsheet
Spain Montes Aquilanos range site factsheet
Spain Moratalla mountain range site factsheet
Spain Mountains of Barcelona site factsheet
Spain Pass of Beceite-Turmell mountain site factsheet
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Prelittoral mountain ranges of Granada site factsheet
Spain Rivers Cabriel and Júcar canyons site factsheet
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret site factsheet
Spain Sierra de Aracena site factsheet
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla site factsheet
Spain Sierra Pelada mountain range site factsheet
Spain Tietar valley site factsheet
Spain Torrecilla and Gigante mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Turia canyon and Los Serranos site factsheet
Spain Urbión and Cebollera Mountain Ranges site factsheet
Spain Valdegovía-Arcena mountain range site factsheet
Ukraine Bondar marsh site factsheet
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys site factsheet
Ukraine Polis'kyi Nature Reserve site factsheet
Ukraine Syra Pogonya mire site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Desert Hot suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Savanna Dry suitable breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Circaetus gallicus. Downloaded from on 23/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 23/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Accipitridae (Osprey, kites, hawks and eagles)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1788)
Population size 51000-156000 mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 13,000,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species