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White-winged Scoter Melanitta deglandi
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2010 Under Review

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass 1757 g


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,840,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,430,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 0
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Population justification: There is apparently no reliable estimate of this species's total population, and further research is needed.
Trend justification: The overall population trend is thought to be negative (Delany and Scott 2006), although there are mixed results from combined scoter Melanitta spp. surveys (T. Bowman in litt. 2012). According to one analysis, this species appears to have undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count [CBC] [Butcher and Niven 2007]) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America (Butcher and Niven 2007), and CBC data may not be reliable for tracking trends in this species, as it winters predominantly offshore, where a large proportion may not be visible to shore-based observers (T. Bowman in litt. 2012).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Canada Native Extant     Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Mexico Native Extant   Yes    
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant       Yes
USA Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
USA Eastern Kodiak Island Marine site factsheet
USA Glacier Bay & Icy Strait site factsheet
USA Glacier Bay Outer Coast Marine site factsheet
USA Ilnik Marine site factsheet
USA Kachemak Bay site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Melanitta deglandi. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Bonaparte, 1850)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,840,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species