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LC
Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2006 Not Recognised
2004 Least Concern
2000 Least Concern
1994 Least Concern
1988 Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,920,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6,260,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15 - - -
Population justification: (Wetlands International 2006)
Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (712% increase over 40 years, equating to a 68.8% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant        
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant        
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Bahamas Native Extant        
Barbados Native Extant        
Belize Native Extant        
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant        
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Brazil Native Extant        
Canada Native Extant        
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Chile Native Extant        
Colombia Native Extant        
Costa Rica Native Extant        
Cuba Native Extant        
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Dominica Native Extant        
Dominican Republic Native Extant        
Ecuador Native Extant        
El Salvador Native Extant        
French Guiana Native Extant        
Grenada Native Extant        
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant        
Guatemala Native Extant        
Guyana Native Extant        
Haiti Native Extant        
Honduras Native Extant        
Jamaica Native Extant        
Martinique (to France) Native Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant        
Nicaragua Native Extant        
Panama Native Extant        
Peru Native Extant        
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant        
St Lucia Native Extant        
St Martin (to France) Unknown Extant        
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant        
Suriname Native Extant        
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant        
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
USA Native Extant        
Venezuela Native Extant        
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Anguilla (to UK) Cauls Pond site factsheet
Anguilla (to UK) Prickly Pear (East and West) site factsheet
Anguilla (to UK) Rendezvous Bay Pond site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Offshore Islands site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Potworks Dam site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Valley Church Bay site factsheet
Bahamas Booby Rocks and Pirates Bay site factsheet
Bahamas Cay Sal site factsheet
Bahamas Great Inagua site factsheet
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays site factsheet
Chile Monumento Natural Isla Cachagua site factsheet
Colombia Ciénaga Grande, Isla de Salamanca and Sabana Grande RAMSAR biosphere reserve site factsheet
Colombia Delta del Río San Juan site factsheet
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona site factsheet
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga site factsheet
Cuba Cayo Sabinal, Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahía de Nuevitas site factsheet
Cuba Delta del Mayarí site factsheet
Cuba Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río site factsheet
Cuba Río Máximo site factsheet
Dominican Republic Jaragua National Park site factsheet
Ecuador Isla Santa Clara site factsheet
Ecuador Refugio de Vida Silvestre Isla Corazón e Isla Fragata site factsheet
El Salvador Jiquilisco and Jaltepeque site factsheet
Guyana Shell Beach site factsheet
Jamaica Black River Great Morass site factsheet
Panama Chimán Islands site factsheet
Panama Pearl Archipelago site factsheet
Panama Taboga Group site factsheet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Suroeste site factsheet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vieques site factsheet
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Fort Amsterdam, Sint Maarten site factsheet
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Pelikan Rock, Sint Maarten site factsheet
St Kitts and Nevis Ponds of the Southeast Peninsula site factsheet
St Vincent and the Grenadines Mustique Island site factsheet
Trinidad and Tobago Soldado Rock site factsheet
Trinidad and Tobago West Coast Mudflats site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) East Caicos and adjacent areas site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Grand Turk Salinas and Shores site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) North, Middle and East Caicos Ramsar Site site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Salt Cay Creek and Salinas site factsheet
USA Altamaha River Delta site factsheet
USA Channel Islands - Northern site factsheet
Venezuela Humedal Chacopata site factsheet
Venezuela Isla La Blanquilla site factsheet
Venezuela Isla La Blanquilla - Marine site factsheet
Venezuela Parque Nacional Archipiélago Los Roques site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to UK) Anegada: Western salt ponds and coastal areas site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to USA) North-west Cays site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to USA) St John site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pelecanus occidentalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Pelecanidae (Pelicans)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1766
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,920,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species