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LC
Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2006 Not Recognised
2004 Least Concern
2000 Least Concern
1994 Least Concern
1988 Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,920,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6,260,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15 - - -
Population justification: (Wetlands International 2006)
Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (712% increase over 40 years, equating to a 68.8% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant      
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant      
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Bahamas Native Extant      
Barbados Native Extant      
Belize Native Extant      
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant      
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Brazil Native Extant      
Canada Native Extant      
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Chile Native Extant      
Colombia Native Extant      
Costa Rica Native Extant      
Cuba Native Extant      
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Dominica Native Extant      
Dominican Republic Native Extant      
Ecuador Native Extant      
El Salvador Native Extant      
French Guiana Native Extant      
Grenada Native Extant      
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant      
Guatemala Native Extant      
Guyana Native Extant      
Haiti Native Extant      
Honduras Native Extant      
Jamaica Native Extant      
Martinique (to France) Native Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant      
Nicaragua Native Extant      
Panama Native Extant      
Peru Native Extant      
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant      
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant      
St Lucia Native Extant      
St Martin (to France) Unknown Extant      
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant      
Suriname Native Extant      
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant      
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
USA Native Extant      
Venezuela Native Extant      
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Anguilla (to UK) Cauls Pond site factsheet
Anguilla (to UK) Prickly Pear (East and West) site factsheet
Anguilla (to UK) Rendezvous Bay Pond site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Offshore Islands site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Potworks Dam site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Valley Church Bay site factsheet
Bahamas Booby Rocks and Pirates Bay site factsheet
Bahamas Cay Sal site factsheet
Bahamas Great Inagua site factsheet
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays site factsheet
Chile Monumento Natural Isla Cachagua site factsheet
Colombia Ciénaga Grande, Isla de Salamanca and Sabana Grande RAMSAR biosphere reserve site factsheet
Colombia Delta del Río San Juan site factsheet
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona site factsheet
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga site factsheet
Cuba Cayo Sabinal, Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahía de Nuevitas site factsheet
Cuba Delta del Mayarí site factsheet
Cuba Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río site factsheet
Cuba Río Máximo site factsheet
Dominican Republic Jaragua National Park site factsheet
Ecuador Isla Santa Clara site factsheet
Ecuador Refugio de Vida Silvestre Isla Corazón e Isla Fragata site factsheet
El Salvador Jiquilisco and Jaltepeque site factsheet
Guyana Shell Beach site factsheet
Jamaica Black River Great Morass site factsheet
Panama Chimán Islands site factsheet
Panama Pearl Archipelago site factsheet
Panama Taboga Group site factsheet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Suroeste site factsheet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vieques site factsheet
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Fort Amsterdam, Sint Maarten site factsheet
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Pelikan Rock, Sint Maarten site factsheet
St Kitts and Nevis Ponds of the Southeast Peninsula site factsheet
St Vincent and the Grenadines Mustique Island site factsheet
Trinidad and Tobago Soldado Rock site factsheet
Trinidad and Tobago West Coast Mudflats site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) East Caicos and adjacent areas site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Grand Turk Salinas and Shores site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) North, Middle and East Caicos Ramsar Site site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Salt Cay Creek and Salinas site factsheet
USA Altamaha River Delta site factsheet
USA Channel Islands (Northern) site factsheet
Venezuela Humedal Chacopata site factsheet
Venezuela Humedal Chacopata - Marine site factsheet
Venezuela Isla La Blanquilla site factsheet
Venezuela Isla La Blanquilla - Marine site factsheet
Venezuela Parque Nacional Archipiélago Los Roques site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to UK) Anegada: Western salt ponds and coastal areas site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to USA) North-west Cays site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to USA) St John site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pelecanus occidentalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Pelecanidae (Pelicans)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1766
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,920,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species