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Goias Parakeet Pyrrhura pfrimeri
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Justification
This species has an extremely small range which is severely fragmented and within which habitat loss and degradation are continuing. For these reasons it is listed as Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Taxonomic note
Pyrrhura leucotis (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into P. leucotis, P. griseipectus and P. pfrimeri following SACC (2005).

Identification
23 cm. Overall a green parakeet with blue in the wing, a red-brown rump, tail and belly. The chest and breast has dark green scallops. The face is chestnut-red while the crown, nape and hind-neck are dull blue. Similar spp subtly different from P. leucotis and P. griseipectus, having generally more blue on the head and a reduced auricular patch.

Distribution and population
Pyrrhura pfrimeri is an endemic restricted to the narrow dry forest belt near the Serra Geral, in the states of Goiás and Tocantins (Silva 1995, Olmos et al. 1998, Joseph 2000), Brazil. It occupies a small range within which much of its forest habitat has been (and continues to be) logged (Olmos et al. 1998). However, based on models of suitable habitat, its potential range may be twice its current extent of occurence (Marini et al. 2010). Ongoing work suggests there may now be fewer than 50,000 individuals remaining (C. A. Bianchi in litt. 2006, 2007), representing a decline of up to 75% from 1998 estimates of c. 162,000-202,500 birds (although the 1998 figure may have been an overestimate as habitat was already severely degraded in parts of the species's range [Olmos et al. 1998]).

Population justification
The total population is estimated to lie within the band 20,000-49,999 individuals (C. A. Bianchi in litt. 2006, 2007). The species's population density has been estimated to be 11.7 individuals / km2.

Trend justification
Given the rapid rate of deforestation within the species's restricted range, and its strong reliance on forest habitats it is suspected to be declining very rapidly (F. Olmos in litt. 2004).

Ecology
It is restricted to deciduous or semi-deciduous dry forest growing on limestone outcrops or limestone derived soils. This caatinga type habitat is an isolated island within surrounding cerrado savannah. Caatinga forest typically has a closed canopy and dense understorey with lianas and some cacti, particularly in disturbed areas. The species has been seen in recently fragmented forest patches (Olmos et al. 1998) but reportedly does not occur far from the forest edge. It feeds on flowers, fruits and seeds, sometimes on the ground and typically in groups.

Threats
The principal threat to this species is deforestation driven by selective logging, fires and habitat conversion to pasture (Olmos et al. 1998). Dry forest in Goiás decreased from covering 15.8 % of the region in 1990 to only 5.8 % in 1999, and less than 1 % of the remaining fragments were larger than 100 ha (F. Olmos in litt. 2007). There has been a 66% decrease in available habitat in the past 31 years, with a current annual deforestation rate of 2.1% (Bianchi 2010). Rapid deforestation is occurring within the species's range to create pasture and widespread burning to improve poor pasture is destroying dry forest habitat. Logging mainly targets durable woods that are commonly used to make fence poles, and cement companies are beginning to target areas of limestone outcrops (C. A. Bianchi in litt. 2006, 2007). The species is rarely recorded in trade or exotic bird collections but this poses a potential threat (Olmos et al. 1998). Population pressure will increase as its range lies close to the capital city, Brasilia (Olmos et al. 1998).

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs within the proposed Terra Ronca State Park but this is yet to be fully implemented, and Mata Grande National Forest (C. A. Bianchi in litt. 2006, 2007). The flatlands of Terra Ronca State Park now appear to have been deforested, leaving fragments of forest only on karst limestone outcrops (Willis in litt. ). Other parts of the range are not protected. The species appears on the Brazilian Red List as Vulnerable and IBAMA (Brazilian Federal Agency for Environment) is about to create a "Small Parakeet Conservation Group" to comprise all Pyrrhura spp. and establish conservation efforts. Brasilia Zoological Garden started a captive breeding program in 2001 with 10 individuals but none survived after six years (C. A. Bianchi in litt. 2006, 2007). Very few private aviculturists are known to keep the species in captivity (C. A. Bianchi in litt. 2006, 2007). Conservation Actions Proposed
Determine the extent of remaining habitat and current rates of deforestation. Closely monitor the species in trade in case demand increases.

References
Bianchi, C. A. 2010. Rapid endangered species assessment: a novel approach to improve extinction risk assessments in poorly known species. PhD, Oregon State University.

Joseph, L. 1988. A review of the conservation status of Australian parrots in 1987. Biological Conservation 46: 261-280.

Olmos, F.; Martuscelli, P.; Silva e Silva, R. 1997. Distribution and dry season ecology of Pfrimer's Conure Pyrrhura pfrimeri, with a reappraisal of Brazilian Pyrrhura "leucotis". Ornitologia Neotropical 8(2): 121-132.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Bird, J., Butchart, S., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Bianchi, C., Olmos, F., Willis, D.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pyrrhura pfrimeri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,185 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species