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NT
Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A3b 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2010 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Conservation Dependent
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
shelf island
Average mass 535 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,620,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,120,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good Estimated 2004
Population trend Stable poor -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -
Population justification: Gutiérrez and Guinart (2008) reported a global population of 21,161 pairs. However, more recent figures point to a total of 21,300-22,300 pairs, of which 21,080-21,310 pairs are in Europe. The global population is therefore estimated to number 63,900-66,900 individuals (G. Eken in litt. 1999, N. Baccetti in litt. 2008, D. Portolou in litt. 2010).
Trend justification: The population has expanded owing to increased availability of fisheries discards close to key breeding colonies. Current fishery practices are unsustainable and may result in collapse in the fishery in the future. This would induce population declines in Audouin's Gull.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Albania Unknown Extant        
Algeria Native Extant Yes      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Unknown Extant        
Bulgaria Vagrant Extant        
Croatia Native Extant Yes      
Cyprus Native Extant     Yes Yes
Czech Republic Vagrant Extant        
Egypt Vagrant Extant        
France Native Extant       Yes
Gambia Native Extant   Yes    
Georgia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Germany Vagrant Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Greece Native Extant     Yes Yes
Israel Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Italy Native Extant     Yes Yes
Jordan Vagrant Extant        
Lebanon Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Libya Native Extant   Yes    
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Vagrant Extant       Yes
Malta Vagrant Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant   Yes    
Monaco Unknown Extant        
Montenegro Unknown Extant        
Morocco Native Extant       Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Portugal Native Extant Yes      
Senegal Native Extant   Yes    
Slovenia Unknown Extant        
Spain Native Extant     Yes Yes
Switzerland Vagrant Extant        
Syria Unknown Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant Yes      
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
Western Sahara Unknown Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Algeria Île Rachgoune site factsheet
Algeria Îles Habibas site factsheet
Croatia Lastovo archipelago site factsheet
Croatia National park Mljet site factsheet
Croatia Peljesac peninsula and islands site factsheet
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands site factsheet
France Golfe de Porto, presqu'île de Scandola et golfe de Galeria site factsheet
France Iles Cerbicale site factsheet
France Iles Finocchiarola et côte de Tamarone à Centuri site factsheet
Gambia Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve site factsheet
Gibraltar (to UK) Strait of Gibraltar site factsheet
Greece Amorgos island site factsheet
Greece Astypalea island and nearby islets site factsheet
Greece Chalki island and nearby islets site factsheet
Greece Fourni islands site factsheet
Greece Islets of North Dodekanisa site factsheet
Greece Kasos island site factsheet
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and rocky islets site factsheet
Greece Mikres Kyklades and Amorgos marine area site factsheet
Greece National Marine Park of Alonissos (North Sporades) site factsheet
Greece North and east Kalimnos, Telendos, and Kalolimnos islands and islets site factsheet
Greece North-west Skyros and Ag. Fokas islets site factsheet
Greece North, east and south Kithira island site factsheet
Greece Paros, Antiparos and adjacent islands site factsheet
Greece Rineia, Chtapodia and Tragonisi islets, Mykonos site factsheet
Greece Rocky islets of Limnos island site factsheet
Greece Simi island and adjacent islets site factsheet
Greece Skiathos and western Skopelos marine region site factsheet
Greece Tilos island site factsheet
Greece Tokmakia islets site factsheet
Italy Asinara island, Piana island and Stintino peninsula site factsheet
Italy Cagliari wetlands site factsheet
Italy Cape Caccia and Conte port site factsheet
Italy Capes and islands of south-eastern Sardinia site factsheet
Italy Colostrai pool site factsheet
Italy Features of the coast between Cape Teulada and Cape Pula site factsheet
Italy Features of the coast from Coghinas river-mouth to Cape Testa site factsheet
Italy Maddalena archipelago and Cape Ferro site factsheet
Italy Orosei Gulf, Supramonte and Gennargentu site factsheet
Italy San Pietro and Sant'Antioco islands site factsheet
Italy Sant'Andrea island site factsheet
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands site factsheet
Italy Tavolara archipelago, Cape Ceraso and Cape Figari site factsheet
Italy Tuscan Archipelago site factsheet
Lebanon Palm Islands Nature Reserve site factsheet
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla site factsheet
Morocco Embouchure Oued Moulouya site factsheet
Morocco Lagune de Khnifiss site factsheet
Morocco Oued Chebeika site factsheet
Morocco Parc National de Souss-Massa and Aglou site factsheet
Morocco Pointe d'Awfist site factsheet
Morocco Sebkha Bou Areg site factsheet
Morocco Sidi Moussa - Oualidia site factsheet
Senegal Cap Vert site factsheet
Senegal Delta du Saloum site factsheet
Senegal Joal-Fadiouth site factsheet
Senegal La Petite Côte site factsheet
Spain Aguas de Formentera y sur de Ibiza site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Baix Llobregat - Garraf site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Levante de Ibiza site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Norte y Oeste de Menorca site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Poniente de Mallorca site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Poniente y Norte de Ibiza site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Sur de Mallorca y Cabrera site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Sureste de Menorca site factsheet
Spain Alborán island site factsheet
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes site factsheet
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera site factsheet
Spain Bahía de Almería site factsheet
Spain Ceuta site factsheet
Spain Chafarinas Islands site factsheet
Spain Columbretes islands site factsheet
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain Estrecho de Gibraltar site factsheet
Spain Golfo de Cádiz site factsheet
Spain Guadalquivir marshes site factsheet
Spain Isle of Conejera and islets of Bledes and Espartar (Ibiza) site factsheet
Spain Islets of Santa Eulalia, Redona and Es Canar (Ibiza) site factsheet
Spain Littoral islets of Murcia and Almería site factsheet
Spain Llobregat delta site factsheet
Spain Mar Menor coastal lagoon site factsheet
Spain Mata and Torrevieja lagoons site factsheet
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata site factsheet
Spain Mouth of the river Guadalhorce site factsheet
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire site factsheet
Spain Plataforma - Talud Marinos del Cabo de la Nao site factsheet
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes site factsheet
Spain Prat de Cabanes-Torreblanca site factsheet
Spain Salt-pans of Ibiza and Formentera and Freus isles site factsheet
Spain Tabarca - Cabo de Palos site factsheet
Spain Tarifa site factsheet
Spain Wetlands of western Almería site factsheet
Tunisia Galite archipelago site factsheet
Tunisia Zembra and Zembretta Islands site factsheet
Turkey Alaçatı site factsheet
Turkey Aydıncık and Ovacık Coast site factsheet
Turkey Bodrum Islands site factsheet
Turkey Datça and Bozburun Peninsula site factsheet
Turkey Göksu Delta site factsheet
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) marginal resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) marginal resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Goat (Capra hircus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Larus audouinii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Laridae (Gulls, Terns, Skimmers)
Species name author Payraudeau, 1826
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,620,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species