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White-eyed Gull Larus leucophthalmus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A3de 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2010 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 721,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 721,000 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 1,400 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2003
Population trend Stable medium -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11 - - -
Population justification: PERSGA/GEF (2003) estimated 12,000-13,000 breeding pairs (36,000-39,000 individuals), excluding Eritrea, equating to 37,000-44,000 individuals overall.
Trend justification: The population is believed to be stable (Rose and Scott 1997).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Djibouti Native Extant       Yes
Egypt Native Extant       Yes
Eritrea Native Extant       Yes
Greece Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Iran, Islamic Republic of Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Israel Native Extant   Yes    
Jordan Native Extant   Yes    
Kenya Native Extinct   Yes    
Maldives Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Oman Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Saudi Arabia Native Extant       Yes
Somalia Native Extant       Yes
Sudan Native Extant Yes      
Turkey Vagrant Extant   Yes    
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Yemen Native Extant     Yes Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Egypt Ain Sukhna site factsheet
Egypt Gebel El Zeit site factsheet
Egypt Hurghada archipelago site factsheet
Egypt Qulân islands site factsheet
Egypt Ras Mohammed National Park site factsheet
Egypt Rawabel islands site factsheet
Egypt Siyal islands site factsheet
Egypt Suez site factsheet
Egypt Tiran island site factsheet
Egypt Wadi Gimal island site factsheet
Egypt Zabargad island site factsheet
Eritrea Dehalak Archipelago and offshore islands site factsheet
Eritrea Massawa coast site factsheet
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Al-Wajh Bank site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Shuqaiq mangrove site factsheet
Somalia Jasiira Ceebaad and Jasiira Sacaada Diin site factsheet
Sudan Mukawwar island and Dunganab bay site factsheet
Yemen Al-Fazzah site factsheet
Yemen Al-Mukha - Al-Khawkhah site factsheet
Yemen Bab al-Mandab - Mawza site factsheet
Yemen Bahr Ibn Abbas - Ra's Isa site factsheet
Yemen Islands north of Al-Hudaydah site factsheet
Yemen Jaza'ir al-Hanish site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified rats (Rattus spp.) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / West Nile Virus (Flaviviridae) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Nestlings Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Larus leucophthalmus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Laridae (Gulls, Terns, Skimmers)
Species name author Temminck, 1825
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 721,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change