This species is considered Near Threatened as it has a highly restricted breeding range, with 90% of the world population breeding on a single small island. Populations fluctuate widely in response to climatic events, although these fluctuations are less than one order of magnitude. It is likely to be at high risk from catastrophic events or local anthropogenic changes, and should be carefully monitored.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Catharacta skua, C. lonnbergi, C. antarctica and C. maccormicki (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993), cross-regional species, are retained as separate species contra Christidis and Boles (1994) and Turbott (1990) who include lonnbergi and antarctica as subspecies of C. skua and AERC TAC (2003) who include C. maccormicki as a subspecies of C. skua.
Anderson, D. W.; Mendoza, J. E.; Keith, J. O. 1976. Seabirds in the Gulf of California: a vulnerable, international resource. Natural Resources Journal 16: 483-505.
Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M. 1996. Laridae (Gulls). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 572-623. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Everett, W. T.; Anderson, D. W. 1991. Status and conservation of the breeding seabirds on offshore Pacific islands of Baja California and the Gulf of California. In: Croxall, J.P. (ed.), Seabird status and conservation: a supplement, pp. 115-139. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Kushlan, J. A.; Steinkamp, M. J.; Parsons, K. C.; Capp, J.; Cruz, M. A.; Coulter, M.; Davidson, I.; Dickson, L.; Edelson, N.; Ellio, R.; Erwin, M.; Hatch, S.; Kress, S.; Milko, R.; Miller, S.; Mills, K.;…authors continued in notes. 2002. Waterbird conservation for the Americas. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service National Publications Clearinghouse, Shepherdstown, U.S.A.
Velarde, E. 1992. Predation of Heermann's Gull (Larus heermanni) chicks by Yellow-footed Gulls (Larus livens) in dense and scattered nesting sites. Colonial Waterbirds 15: 8-13.
Velarde, E. 1999. Breeding biology of Heermann's Gulls on Isla Rasa, gulf of California, Mexico. The Auk 116: 513-519.
Velarde, E.; Tordesillas, M. D. L. S.; Vieyra, L.; Esquivel, R. 1994. Seabirds as indicators of important fish populations in the Gulf of California. CalCOFI Report 35: 137-143.
Further web sources of information
Hear sounds for this species from xeno-canto, the community database of shared bird sounds from around the world.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Butchart, S., Gilroy, J., Sharpe, C J
Keitt, B., Tershy, B., Velarde, E.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Larus heermanni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/12/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/12/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Near Threatened|
|Family||Laridae (Gulls and terns)|
|Species name author||Cassin, 1852|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||43 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|