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Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,050,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 75,700,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13.5 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number c.20,000-50,000 breeding pairs, equating to c.60,000-150,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 5-24% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is c.250,000-3,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: < c.1,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Algeria Native Extant        
Angola Native Extant        
Anguilla (to UK) Unknown Extant        
Antarctica Vagrant Extant        
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant        
Argentina Native Extant        
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Australia Native Extant        
Austria Native Extant     Yes  
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bahamas Native Extant        
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Barbados Native Extant        
Belarus Vagrant Extant        
Belgium Native Extant        
Belize Native Extant   Yes    
Benin Unknown Extant        
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant        
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Vagrant Extant        
Brazil Native Extant        
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant        
Brunei Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes    
Cambodia Unknown Extant        
Canada Native Extant        
Cape Verde Native Extant        
Cayman Islands (to UK) Unknown Extant        
Chile Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Christmas Island (to Australia) Unknown Extant        
Colombia Native Extant        
Comoros Unknown Extant        
Congo Vagrant Extant        
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes    
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Vagrant Extant        
Cuba Native Extant        
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Czech Republic Native Extant        
Denmark Native Extant     Yes  
Djibouti Native Extant        
Dominica Native Extant        
Dominican Republic Unknown Extant        
Ecuador Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
El Salvador Unknown Extant        
Equatorial Guinea Unknown Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant        
Fiji Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Finland Native Extant        
France Native Extant   Yes Yes  
French Guiana Native Extant        
French Southern Territories Unknown Extant        
Gambia Native Extant        
Germany Native Extant     Yes  
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant        
Greece Vagrant Extant        
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant   Yes    
Grenada Unknown Extant        
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant   Yes    
Guatemala Native Extant        
Guinea Unknown Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Vagrant Extant        
Guyana Native Extant        
Haiti Vagrant Extant        
Honduras Unknown Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Vagrant Extant        
Hungary Native Extant        
Iceland Native Extant        
India Native Extant        
Indonesia Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Ireland Native Extant        
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant   Yes    
Jamaica Unknown Extant        
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Vagrant Extant        
Kazakhstan Vagrant Extant        
Kenya Native Extant        
Kiribati Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Latvia Vagrant Extant        
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Liberia Native Extant        
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant        
Madagascar Unknown Extant        
Malaysia Native Extant        
Maldives Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Marshall Islands Native Extant   Yes    
Martinique (to France) Native Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Micronesia, Federated States of Unknown Extant        
Montenegro Vagrant Extant        
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant        
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Unknown Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes    
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant        
New Zealand Vagrant Extant        
Nicaragua Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Unknown Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palau Unknown Extant        
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes  
Panama Native Extant        
Papua New Guinea Unknown Extant        
Peru Native Extant        
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant        
Portugal Native Extant        
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Qatar Native Extant   Yes    
Romania Native Extant   Yes    
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
São Tomé e Príncipe Unknown Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Vagrant Extant        
Seychelles Unknown Extant        
Sierra Leone Native Extant        
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant        
Slovenia Vagrant Extant        
Solomon Islands Native Extant        
Somalia Vagrant Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Korea Vagrant Extant        
Spain Native Extant        
Sri Lanka Native Extant        
St Helena (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant        
St Lucia Native Extant        
St Martin (to France) Native Extant   Yes    
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant   Yes Yes  
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant        
Sudan Unknown Extant        
Suriname Native Extant        
Sweden Native Extant        
Switzerland Native Extant        
Taiwan (China) Unknown Extant        
Tanzania Vagrant Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Timor-Leste Unknown Extant        
Togo Vagrant Extant        
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Vagrant Extant        
Turkmenistan Native Extant     Yes  
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Tuvalu Unknown Extant        
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant     Yes  
Uruguay Native Extant   Yes    
USA Native Extant Yes      
Vanuatu Native Extant        
Venezuela Native Extant        
Vietnam Unknown Extant        
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Unknown Extant        
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Norway Slettnes site factsheet
Norway Varanger Peninsula site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river site factsheet
USA Barrow Canyon & Smith Bay site factsheet
USA Beaufort Sea Shelf Edge 152W71N site factsheet
USA Bering Sea Shelf 168W62N site factsheet
USA Bering Sea Shelf 169W60N site factsheet
USA Chukchi Sea Nearshore site factsheet
USA Eastern Kodiak Island Marine site factsheet
USA Icy Cape Marine site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Stercorarius pomarinus. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Stercorariidae (Skuas)
Species name author (Temminck, 1815)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,050,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment