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Black-winged Pratincole Glareola nordmanni

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2bc+3bc+4bc 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2007 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Data Deficient
2000 Data Deficient
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 97.2 g


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,440,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,440,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.3 - - -
Population justification: Survey work in Kazakhstan and subsequent re-calculation of bird numbers across the known range of the species would suggest a world population of 76,000-95,000 pairs, roughly equivalent to 220,000-290,000 individuals in total. This upward revision of breeding numbers is reasonable given the large flocks recently reported on the wintering grounds, e.g. a flock of 76,000 individuals recorded at Vaal Dam in South Africa on the wintering grounds. An even larger flock of 250,000-800,000 individuals in Orange Free State in South Africa in 1991 suggests the population may be (or might have been) even larger.
Trend justification: The status of the European population (2,500-5,100 pairs, occupying 25-49% of the global breeding range) was recently reassessed in Birds in Europe (BirdLife International 2004). The most significant European population (in European Russia) declined steeply during 1990-2000, and overall the species declined by more than 50% over ten years (generation length: <3.3 years). This trend may have ceased since 2000, and the European population represents a fairly small proportion of the global population. The species is increasing in central and north-east Kazakhstan and south-east Russia. Trends in Central Asia are likely to determine the global status of the species, and there is evidence that some colonies have disappeared. Overall declines of approximately 20% are suspected.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes
Angola Native Extant   Yes Yes
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Austria Vagrant Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes    
Bahrain Vagrant Extant     Yes
Belarus Native Extant Yes    
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Botswana Native Extant   Yes  
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes    
Burundi Native Extant   Yes Yes
Cameroon Native Extant      
Central African Republic Native Extant     Yes
Chad Native Extant   Yes Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant   Yes Yes
Côte d'Ivoire Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Croatia Native Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes Yes
Czech Republic Vagrant Extant      
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Egypt Native Extant   Yes Yes
Equatorial Guinea Vagrant Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant     Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Finland Vagrant Extant      
France Vagrant Extant      
Gabon Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Georgia Native Extant      
Germany Vagrant Extant      
Ghana Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes
Guinea Vagrant Extant      
Hungary Native Extant Yes    
Iceland Vagrant Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes
Ireland Vagrant Extant      
Israel Native Extant     Yes
Italy Vagrant Extant      
Jordan Vagrant Extant      
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Vagrant Extant   Yes Yes
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant      
Latvia Vagrant Extant      
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes
Lesotho Native Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Vagrant Extant      
Mali Native Extant   Yes Yes
Mauritania Native Extant   Yes Yes
Moldova Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Vagrant Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant   Yes  
Netherlands Vagrant Extant      
Niger Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant   Yes Yes
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Oman Vagrant Extant     Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes
Poland Vagrant Extant      
Romania Native Extinct Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Rwanda Native Extant   Yes Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes
Serbia Vagrant Extant      
Seychelles Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Slovakia Vagrant Extant      
Somalia Vagrant Extant     Yes
South Africa Native Extant   Yes  
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Vagrant Extant      
Sudan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Switzerland Vagrant Extant      
Syria Vagrant Extant     Yes
Tanzania Native Extant   Yes  
Togo Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Turkey Native Extant     Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes   Yes
Uganda Native Extant   Yes Yes
Ukraine Native Extant Yes    
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant     Yes
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant      
Yemen Vagrant Extant     Yes
Zambia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Angola Luando Strict Nature Reserve site factsheet
Armenia Armash fish-farm site factsheet
Botswana Lake Ngami site factsheet
Botswana Linyanti swamp/Chobe river site factsheet
Botswana Makgadikgadi Pans site factsheet
Botswana Okavango Delta site factsheet
Ethiopia Baro river site factsheet
Iraq Attariya plains site factsheet
Israel Carmel coast site factsheet
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys site factsheet
Israel Northern lower Jordan valley site factsheet
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains site factsheet
Israel Zevulun valley site factsheet
Kazakhstan Aktubek site factsheet
Kazakhstan Amangeldy site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sagyz site factsheet
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System site factsheet
Namibia Eastern Caprivi wetlands site factsheet
Namibia Etosha National Park site factsheet
Namibia Mahango Game Reserve and Kavango river site factsheet
Namibia Tsumkwe pan system site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Abushkan lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Alabota lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Burekesken Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Butash and Gor'koye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Chuburat Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Katai lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kharitonovsky complex of lakes and marshes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kocherdyksky goose zakaznik site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Kisloe site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lyapuniha Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Mouth of the river Uj site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Puchina area site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Uryadki Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Uzkaya Steppe site factsheet
Russia (European) Agrakhanski Bay (North Agrakhan) site factsheet
Russia (European) Beglitskaya sand-spit site factsheet
Russia (European) Budary lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Bulukhta area site factsheet
Russia (European) Chonta site factsheet
Russia (European) Cranes area site factsheet
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don site factsheet
Russia (European) Drofinyi area site factsheet
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya site factsheet
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo site factsheet
Russia (European) Kalausskiye floods site factsheet
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes site factsheet
Russia (European) Kazachka site factsheet
Russia (European) Krasnoarmeiskiye waste lands site factsheet
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Lake Ayke site factsheet
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river site factsheet
Russia (European) Mouth of Yeya river site factsheet
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods site factsheet
Russia (European) Novokvasnikovski liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Prikumskiye steppes site factsheet
Russia (European) Sarpinskaya lake-system site factsheet
Russia (European) Shalkaro-Zhetykol'ski lake system site factsheet
Russia (European) Sostinskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Stepnovski saltmarshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Steppes in the vicinity of Kanavka village site factsheet
Russia (European) Tazhinski liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Safarovka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Varfolomeyevskiye saltmarshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Vicinity of Borisoglebovka (Saratovski [Semenovski] Reserve) site factsheet
South Africa Amersfoort - Bethal - Carolina District site factsheet
South Africa Chrissie Pans site factsheet
South Africa Grasslands site factsheet
South Africa Nyl River Floodplain site factsheet
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabbul site factsheet
Tanzania Serengeti National Park site factsheet
Tanzania Usangu flats site factsheet
Turkey Bulanık and Malazgirt Plains site factsheet
Turkmenistan Badhyz site factsheet
Uganda Kidepo Valley National Park site factsheet
Uganda Murchison Falls National Park site factsheet
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George site factsheet
Ukraine Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake site factsheet
Zambia Kafue Flats site factsheet
Zambia Liuwa Plain National Park site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Salt Exploitation Sites unset resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes unset breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Glareola nordmanni. Downloaded from on 11/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 11/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Glareolidae (Coursers and pratincoles)
Species name author Fischer, 1842
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,440,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species