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Togian Boobook Ninox burhani

Justification
This species has a small population within a very small range. However, its population is divided into several island sub-populations, one of which occurs in a protected area and is likely to be stable and to exceed 1,000 individuals. For these reasons it is currently classified as Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Indrawan, M.; Somadikarta, S. 2004. A new hawk-owl from the Togian Islands, Gulf of Tomini, central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 124: 160-171.

Identification
A medium-sized, brown hawk-owl, with white lower underparts from the lower breast to the vent, streaked with brown. Prominent white supercilia meet above the nasal area. Has white patches on its scapulars. Similar spp. It differs from other species by the combination of dark brown upperparts, white underparts below the breast streaked with brown, and its small size. Voice A gruff, 2-4 syllable croak.

Distribution and population
Ninox burhani has a very small range, being only known from the islands of Malenge, Togian and Batudaka in the Togian archipelago off central Sulawesi, Indonesia (Verbelen and Demeulemeester 2010). Aural encounters believed to relate to this species on Waleabahi Island to the east imply it is widespread in moderate numbers throughout the archipelago. It may be declining but current trends have not yet been studied.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 individuals in total, equating to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals (M. Indrawan in litt. 2006).

Trend justification
Principally a forest-dependent species, it is likely to be declining in line with forest clearance.

Ecology
A resident of lowland and hill forest, it has been recorded in scrubby woodland surrounded by evergreen forest and also in degraded forest, mixed gardens and sago swamp, at elevations from sea-level to 400 m (Verbelen and Demeulemeester 2010).

Threats
As the species is largely forest-dependent, continuing forest clearance for agriculture and logging represents a threat.

Conservation Actions Underway
A Togian Islands National Park was declared by the Ministry of Forestry in 2004, and includes over 250 km2 of terrestrial habitat, including areas in which this species is known to occur. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys to establish the full extent of the species's range and how large its current population is. Determine what threats to the species exist.

References
Indrawan, M.; Somadikarta, S. 2004. A new hawk-owl from the Togian Islands, Gulf of Tomini, central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 124: 160-171.

Verbelen, P.; Demeulemeester, B. 2010. A further odyssey in search of the little-known owls of Indonesia. BirdingASIA 13: 106-108.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Bird, J., Butchart, S., Crosby, M., Khwaja, N., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Indrawan, M.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Ninox burhani. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Strigidae (Typical Owls)
Species name author Indrawan & Somadikarta, 2004
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 650 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species