|BirdLife Species Champion||Become a BirdLife Preventing Extinctions Programme Supporter|
|For information about BirdLife Species Champions and Species Guardians visit the BirdLife Preventing Extinctions Programme.|
This newly-split kiwi is increasing in number following intensive conservation management. However, the total population still remains very small and it is therefore classified as Endangered. If the population continues to increase it may be eligible for downlisting in the future.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Apteryx australis, A. mantelli and A. rowi (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously treated as A. australis and A. mantelli (incorporating rowi) following Baker et al. (1995); prior to that all three taxa were lumped as A. australis following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).
40 cm. Medium-sized kiwi, flightless, no visible wings. Dark greyish-brown feathers streaked lengthways with reddish-brown. Long ivory bill. Similar spp. Okarito birds distinguished from Tokoeka A. australis by slightly greyer plumage, occasional white facial whiskers. Voice Shrill, clear ascending then descending whistle (male), lower-pitched, hoarse cry (female). Note duration and inter-note interval increase during a calling bout, and there is evidence that the species may duet (Corfield et al. 2008). Hints Loud calls at night, especially first two hours of darkness.
Baker, A. J.; Daugherty, C. H.; Colbourne, R.; McLennan, J. L. 1995. Flightless Brown Kiwis of New Zealand possess extremely subdivided population structure and cryptic species like small mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92: 8254-8258.
Basse, B., McLennan, J.A. and Wake, G.C. 1999. Analysis of the impact of stoats, Mustela erminea, on the northern brown kiwi, Apteryx mantelli, in New Zealand. Journal of Wildlife Research 26: 227-237.
Calder, W.A., Parr, C.R. and Karl, D.P. 1978. Energy content of eggs of Brown Kiwi Apteryx australis-extreme in avian evolution. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 60(2): 177-179.
Colbourne, R. 2002. Incubation behaviour and egg physiology of kiwi (Apteryx spp.) in natural habitats. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 26(2): 129-138.
Colbourne, R., Bassett, S., Billing, A., McCormack, H., McLennan, J., Nelson, A. and Robertson, H. 2005. The development of Operation Nest Egg as a tool in the conservation management of kiwi. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Corfield, J.; Gillman, L.; Parsons, S. 2008. Vocalizations of the North Island Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). The Auk 125(2): 326-335.
Heather, B. D.; Robertson, H. A. 1997. The field guide to the birds of New Zealand. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Holzapfel, S.; Robertson, H.A.; McLennan, J.A.; Sporle, W.; Hackwell, K.; Impey, M. 2008 . Kiwi (Apteryx spp.) recovery plan: 20082018. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Hutching, G. 1995. Kiwi recovery? Attempting to save a national icon. Forest and Bird 278: 22-28.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Marchant, S.; Higgins, P. J. 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, 1: ratites to ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
McLennan, J. A.; Potter, M. A.; Robertson, H. A.; Wake, G. C.; Colbourne, R.; Dew, L.; Joyce, L.; McCann, A. J.; Miles, J.; Miller, P. J.; Reid, J. 1996. Role of predation in the decline of kiwi, Apteryx spp., in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 20: 27-35.
McLennan, J.A., Dew, L., Miles, J., Gillingham, N. and Waiwai, R. 2004. Size matters: predation risk and juvenile growth in North Island Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). New Zealand Journal of Ecology 28(2): 241-250.
Miller, P. J.; Pierce, R. J. 1995. Distribution and decline of the North Island Brown Kiwi (Apteryx australis mantelli) in Northland. Notornis 42: 203-211.
Pickard, J. G. 2009. The National Kiwi Trust - Kiwi encounter. International Zoo News 56(7): 388-400.
Pierce, R.J. and Sporle, W. 1997. Causes of kiwi mortality in Northland. Conservation Advisory Notes 169. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Robertson, H. A. 1998. Kiwi recovery plan 1996--2006. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Robertson, H. A. 2013. Okarito brown kiwi. In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Online. Available at: www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz.
Robertson, H.A., Colbourne, R.A., Graham, P.J., Miller, P.J. and Pierce, R.J. 2010. Experimental management of Brown Kiwi Apteryx mantelli in central Northland, New Zealand. Bird Conservation International.
Taborsky, M. 1988. Kiwis and dog predation: observations in Waitangi State Forest. Notornis 35: 197-202.
Tennyson, A. J. D., Palma, R. L.; Robertson, H. A.; Worthy, T. H.; Gill, B. J. 2003. A new species of kiwi (Aves, Apterygiformes) from Okarito, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 40: 55-64.
Ziesemann, B.; Brunton. D. H.; Castro, I. C. 2011. Nesting success and breeding ecology in a high-density population of Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). Emu 111(2): 148-154.
Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Mahood, S., Martin, R, McClellan, R., Taylor, J. & Symes, A.
Robertson, H., Weeber, B. & Germano, J.
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Apteryx rowi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/05/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/05/2016.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Endangered|
|Species name author||Tennyson <i>et al</i>., 2003|
|Population size||200-249 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||240 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|