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LC
Egyptian Plover Pluvianus aegyptius

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Trend justification
The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Ecology
Behaviour This species is largely sedentary but does undertake local irregular nomadic movements in response to changes in riverine water levels (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). North of the equator the species breeds from January to April or May when the water levels in rivers are the lowest (the timing of breeding has not been recorded in the southern parts of species's range) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds in solitary pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and is usually observed in pairs or small groups when not breeding (Hayman et al. 1986), often migrating in flocks of up to 60 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat The species inhabits the middle stretches (Hayman et al. 1986) of large lowland tropical rivers with bars of sand and gravel (which it uses for nesting) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It often occurs around human settlements near rivers (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and may occasionally use other wetland habitats (Hayman et al. 1986) (e.g. lakes or ponds) (Urban et al. 1986) and be found away from water when not breeding or when rivers are in spate (Hayman et al. 1986). It generally avoids heavily forested areas and estuarine waters however (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Its diet consists predominantly of insects (Urban et al. 1986) (adult and larval aquatic and terrestrial forms but especially small flies) as well as worms, molluscs (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and seeds (Urban et al. 1986). Breeding site The nest is a deep scrape (del Hoyo et al. 1996) where the eggs are incubated by being buried in warm sand (Hayman et al. 1986) on an exposed sandbank in a riverbed (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Threats
The species is threatened by habitat changes resulting from the damming of rivers (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

References
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Hayman, P.; Marchant, J.; Prater, A. J. 1986. Shorebirds. Croom Helm, London.

Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 1986. The birds of Africa vol. II. Academic Press, London.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pluvianus aegyptius. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Egyptian plover (Pluvianus aegyptius) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Pluvianidae (Egyptian Plover)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size 15000-57000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 5,980,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change