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LC
Brown-chested Lapwing Vanellus superciliosus

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be small, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 1,000-25,000 individuals, roughly equating to 670-17,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the extent of threats to the species.

Ecology
Behaviour This species is a transequatorial migrant, adults migrating to and from breeding grounds through eastern and central Zaire in November-December (returning in July-August with juveniles) (del Hoyo, et al. 1996). Breeding is assumed to occur during the dry season (January-February in Nigeria and December-January in Zaire) (del Hoyo, et al. 1996). On migration and in its wintering grounds the species may occur in flocks of up to 30-50 individuals (Johnsgard 1981, Hayman, et al. 1986, Urban, et al. 1986), exceptionally being recorded in a flock of 100 in Rwanda (Urban, et al. 1986). Throughout the breeding season this species is solitary and nesting pairs are territorial (although they may nest close together on newly burnt ground if this habitat is scarce) (Johnsgard 1981). The species is crepuscular and feeds at dawn and dusk, occasionally remaining active during bright moonlit nights (del Hoyo, et al. 1996). Habitat This species inhabits a wide variety of dry grassy habitats, including open savanna with Accacia gerrardii and Dychrostachys cinerea (in Rwanda), orchard-bush savanna (in Nigeria), recently burnt grassland (Urban, et al. 1986), football fields and lawns (Urban, et al. 1986, del Hoyo, et al. 1996). It often occurs near rivers and lakes on open, bare ground, and on migration in Zaire it occurs in cleared areas within forest (Urban, et al. 1986). Diet The species is carnivorous, consuming mostly insects (beetles, ants, butterfly and fly larvae, grasshoppers, crickets, bugs, earwigs and termites), but also molluscs, worms and small crustaceans (del Hoyo, et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow scrape (del Hoyo, et al. 1996), preferably positioned in recently burnt grassland (where the nest is safe from new fires) (Johnsgard 1981, Hayman, et al. 1986). Nests may also be positioned in close proximity to water (del Hoyo, et al. 1996) in grassy or orchard-bush savanna, and sometimes also near buildings (Urban, et al. 1986).

References
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Hayman, P.; Marchant, J.; Prater, A. J. 1986. Shorebirds. Croom Helm, London.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.

Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 1986. The birds of Africa vol. II. Academic Press, London.

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Vanellus superciliosus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Charadriidae (Plovers)
Species name author (Reichenow, 1886)
Population size 670-17000 mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 752,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Climate change species distributions