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Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,620,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,620,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Unknown -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.2 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.310,000-390,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-1,000 wintering individuals and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the impacts of habitat modification on population sizes.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes    
Australia Native Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant   Yes  
Bhutan Vagrant Extant      
Brunei Native Extant      
Burundi Native Extant      
Cambodia Native Extant      
Canada Vagrant Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant   Yes  
Christmas Island (to Australia) Native Extant      
Comoros Vagrant Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Vagrant Extant      
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Djibouti Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Fiji Native Extant   Yes Yes
France Vagrant Extant      
Germany Vagrant Extant      
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant      
India Native Extant      
Indonesia Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes
Israel Vagrant Extant      
Japan Native Extant      
Kazakhstan Vagrant Extant      
Kenya Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Laos Native Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Madagascar Vagrant Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant   Yes  
Maldives Native Extant      
Marshall Islands Native Extant   Yes  
Mauritius Vagrant Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes  
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Mozambique Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Namibia Vagrant Extant      
Nauru Unknown Extant   Yes  
Nepal Native Extant      
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant      
New Zealand Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palau Native Extant   Yes  
Papua New Guinea Native Extant      
Philippines Native Extant   Yes  
Poland Vagrant Extant      
Qatar Native Extant     Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant      
Rwanda Vagrant Extant      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Seychelles Native Extant      
Singapore Native Extant      
Solomon Islands Native Extant      
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Vagrant Extant      
Sri Lanka Native Extant   Yes  
Sudan Native Extant      
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Syria Vagrant Extant     Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes    
Tanzania Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant   Yes  
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes
USA Native Extant   Yes  
Uzbekistan Native Extant      
Vanuatu Vagrant Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes
Zambia Vagrant Extant      
Zimbabwe Vagrant Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Australia Great Sandy Strait site factsheet
Australia Gulf Plains site factsheet
Bahrain Tubli Bay site factsheet
Bangladesh Patenga Beach site factsheet
China (mainland) Laizhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai) site factsheet
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary site factsheet
India Kaliveli Tank and Yeduyanthittu estuary site factsheet
India Mahul - Sewree Creek site factsheet
Indonesia Pesisir Pantai Jambi site factsheet
Indonesia Pesisir Riau Tenggara site factsheet
Kenya Mida Creek, Whale Island and the Malindi - Watamu coast site factsheet
Kenya Tana River Delta site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul site factsheet
Malaysia Bako-Buntal Bay site factsheet
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast site factsheet
Mozambique Bazaruto Archipelago site factsheet
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama site factsheet
Oman Al Batinah coast site factsheet
Oman Barr al Hikman site factsheet
Oman Duqm site factsheet
Oman Masirah island site factsheet
Oman Ras al Hadd site factsheet
Philippines Mactan, Kalawisan and Cansaga Bays site factsheet
Philippines Manila Bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Muan tidal flat site factsheet
South Korea Namyang Bay site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island site factsheet
Sri Lanka Araly South-Punalai site factsheet
Sri Lanka Kayts Island-Mandathive site factsheet
Sri Lanka Seguwantive mudflats site factsheet
Tajikistan Bulunkul and Yashilkul lakes and mountains site factsheet
Tajikistan Karakul lake and mountains site factsheet
Tajikistan Rangkul valley (Rangkul & Shorkul Lakes) site factsheet
Tajikistan Zorkul Nature Reserve (Lake Victoria) site factsheet
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Abu al Abyadh island site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Khor al Beideh site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Khor Dubai site factsheet
Vietnam Nghia Hung site factsheet
Yemen Aden site factsheet
Yemen Midi - Al-Luhayyah site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable passage
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subarctic suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable passage
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Charadrius mongolus. Downloaded from on 20/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 20/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Charadriidae (Plovers)
Species name author Pallas, 1776
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,620,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Climate change species distributions