This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
The global population is estimated to number c.310,000-390,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-1,000 wintering individuals and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the impacts of habitat modification on population sizes.
Behaviour This species is fully migratory, with four definable groups migrating on a broad front to different wintering grounds (del Hoyo et al. 1996). In central Siberia, flocks form in early July and depart for their winter quarters in early-August to early-September (adults leaving first), to arrive in India, south Arabia and East Africa in early-August to mid-September (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Populations breeding in eastern Russia, Kamchatka, the Commander Islands and the Chukitsk Peninsula, winter from Taiwan to Australia (Hayman et al. 1986), leaving their breeding grounds late-July to early-September (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The population breeding in the Himalayas and southern Tibet winters in a range or areas from India to Sumatra (Hayman et al. 1986), returning to its breeding grounds between late-February to April (reaching them between mid-April and mid-May) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The fourth migratory group of this species breeds in eastern Tibet and winters from Thailand to the Greater Sundas (Hayman et al. 1986). Many non-breeding birds may also stay in their winter quarters all year round (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). During the non-breeding season the species may occur singly or in flocks of up to 100 or more, but nesting pairs are solitary and territorial during the breeding season (Johnsgard 1981, Urban et al. 1986). This species is mainly diurnal but sometimes forages on moonlit nights (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding During the breeding season this species mainly occurs above the tree-line on mountains at altitudes of up to 5,500 m in the Himalayas(Ladakh, Sikkim, and Tibet) (Johnsgard 1981, Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). It inhabits barren valleys and basins in elevated tundra and mountain steppe, mainly near water (bogs) on moist but well-drained gravelly, rocky or sandy surfaces with sparse vegetation such as salt-pans, patches of detritus, dry edges of salt-marshes and places used by herds of cattle (del Hoyo et al. 1996). In Siberia and the Commander (Komandorskiye) Islands the species also occurs at sea-level, here inhabiting sand dunes and shingle along the coast (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding The species is almost strictly coastal during the non-breeding season, preferring sandy beaches, mudflats of coastal bays and estuaries, sand-flats and dunes near the coast (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), occasionally frequenting mangrove mudflats (in Australia) (National Parks and Wildlife Service 1999 Species Profile: Charadrius mongolus. Downloaded from http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au on 13/8/2007) and feeding on exposed coral reefs (Solomon Islands, Pacific) (Cramp and Simmons 1983). Very rarely the species also frequents coastal airfields (del Hoyo et al. 1996), and during migration it may be seen on the shores of inland lakes (e.g. the East African Great Lakes) (Cramp and Simmons 1983, Urban et al. 1986) and rivers, or on cultivated land (Hayman et al. 1986, Grimmett et al. 1998). Diet Breeding The breeding diet of this species includes many beetles, weevils, fly larvae, stalk worms and crabs (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding During the non-breeding season this species takes insects, crustaceans (such as crabs and amphipods), molluscs (particularly bivalves) and polycheate worms (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest of this species is a shallow scrape in bare sand or shingle (nesting pairs may often utilise cattle footprints), sometimes beside bushes and big stones (or amongst lichens and Drias in the Far East) (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
This species is threatened by habitat degradation and loss (e.g. agricultural developments reducing the area of coastal and inland habitats, and hydrological changes to estuaries modifying important areas of suitable habitat in Australia ), as well as disturbance from tourism (National Parks and Wildlife Service 1999 Species Profile: Charadrius mongolus. Downloaded from http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au on 13/8/2007).
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.
Cramp, S.; Simmons, K. E. L. 1983. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic vol. III: waders to gulls. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Grimmett, R.; Inskipp, C.; Inskipp, T. 1998. Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Christopher Helm, London.
Hayman, P.; Marchant, J.; Prater, A. J. 1986. Shorebirds. Croom Helm, London.
Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.
National Parks and Wildlife Service. 1999. Species Profile: Charadrius mongolus. Australia.
Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 1986. The birds of Africa vol. II. Academic Press, London.
Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species
Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Charadrius mongolus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/07/2014.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Least Concern|
|Species name author||Pallas, 1776|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||3,620,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
- Additional Information on this species|
- Projected distributions under climate change