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Kaempfer's Woodpecker Celeus obrieni
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Justification
This species was recently rediscovered after 80 years without a record, and has now been recorded at several sites across a large range. The species is listed as Endangered because it is thought to have a very small population which is suspected to be in decline owing to on-going habitat loss and degradation. Further study is urgently required for the conservation of this species, which is suffering rapid habitat loss.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Taxonomic note
Celeus spectabilis (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into C. spectabilis and C. obrieni following SACC (2005).

Identification
c.26-28 cm. Male has rufous-red head and bushy crest with pale bill, black breast and tail, yellow to creamy-buff on hindneck to back, rump and underparts, streaked heavily with black on the scapulars, flight feathers chestnut, tail black. Similar spp differs from Rufous-headed Woodpecker Celeus spectabilis in its plain yellow back and underparts rather than showing heavy black streaking. Voice an up-slurred reeahh-kah-kah-kah-kah

Distribution and population
Celeus obrieni was rediscovered in October 2006 after a gap of 80 years since the type specimen was collected in 1926. It was refound during surveys near Goatins in Tocantins state (Prado 2006), central Brazil, c.350 km from the type locality at Uruçui (F. Olmos in litt. 2006) in the state of Piauí. Repeat visits to the site of its rediscovery have identified eight individuals with a further four at a second site (P. Develey in litt. 2007), and a record has emerged from 2004 on the right bank of the Rio Tocantins, São Pedro da Água Branca municipality, Maranhão (Santos and de Vasconcelos 2007). By 2007, at least 23 different individuals had been observed between São Pedro da Água Branca, Maranhão State in the north, the municipality of Dianópolis in Tocantins State in the south, Serra da Raposa in Maranhão State in the east, and the municipalities of Miracema do Tocantins, Pium and Miranorte in Tocantins State in the west (P. Develey in litt. 2007, Advaldo Dias do Prado in litt. 2007, Pinheiro and Dornas 2008). In 2009, it was recorded at two further sites in Maranhão, 200 km to the north (Santos et al. 2010) and also at Rio Barreiro (General Carneiro), Mato Grosso (Dornas et al. 2011, xeno-canto.org). In July 2010, it was recorded on the east bank of the Rio Araguaia near Registro do Araguaia, Goiás, and was also reported from Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins (G. M. Kirwan in litt. 2010). Three individuals have been identified in collections from the state of Goiás: two dating from 1967 and one from 1988 (Hidasi et al. 2008, Dornas et al. 2009). Subsequently, a pair was found in gallery forest on the left bank of the rio do Ouro, Porangatu municipality, in the north-west of the state in 2009 (Pacheco and Maciel 2009). A number of searches have failed to locate the species in the area where the type specimen was collected. Given that it went unrecorded for many years it was assumed to have a tiny population in an extremely small range. However, recent records have increased the Extent of Occurrence of this species to c.806,000 km2, although it occurs discontinuously throughout this area (Advaldo Dias do Prado in litt. 2007). The population estimate has been revised upwards as a consequence.

Population justification
A number of recent records have extended the known range of this species and provoked an increase in the population estimate from the precautionary range of 50-249 mature individuals. The new estimate of 250-2,499 mature individuals may still be conservative, given the species's range, and further study is needed. It equates to roughly 350-4,000 individuals in total.

Trend justification
An unquantified population decline is suspected to have occurred over the last 15 years on the basis of rates of habitat loss, and its known disappearance from the type locality.

Ecology
The type specimen and a recently mist-netted bird were from cerrado woodland with open gallery forest and babaçu palm (Attalea speciosa) forest. Within this habitat it shows strong association with the bamboo Gadua paniculata (P. Develey in litt. 2007, Pinheiro and Dornas 2008). The species appears to specialise in feeding on ants found on bamboo canes (B. Hennessey in litt. 2010, R. T. Pinheiro in litt. 2010). All recent records relate to sightings of single individuals or pairs/family groups. Other aspects of the species's habits are unknown and it seems to occupy markedly different habitat to its sister species, Rufous-headed Woodpecker Celeus spectabilis.

Threats
The main threats to the species are probably from habitat loss and degradation through fires, infrastructure development and conversion to soya crop (F. Olmos in litt. 2006). In Tocantins, it has been reported that a major expansion in Eucalyptus cultivation will take place to meet demand for paper manufacturing, with more than 1 million hectares of cerrado expected to be converted to plantations (T. Dornas in litt. 2011). In addition to Eucalyptus and soybean, sugarcane is also a major crop in Tocantins (T. Dornas in litt. 2011). The species was recently rediscovered during surveys prior to the building of a new section of the Belém-Brasília highway (BR-010). The new road will facilitate access to the area and the expansion of soybean cultivation will probably follow. Preferred habitat (cerrados with bamboo patches), is frequently burned for cattle ranching; whether this practice destroys habitat or helps to maintain it remains poorly understood; however, in the short-term the extensive habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation that results is expected to have a negative effect on the species (B. Hennessey in litt. 2010). Only around 3% of this species's original habitat may remain (B. Hennessey in litt. 2010). A potential new threat is posed by the construction of dams for hydroelecticity (T. Dornas in litt. 2012).


Conservation Actions Underway
The company responsible for the construction of the BR-010 are supporting a monitoring study (P. Develey in litt. 2007). Research continues to elucidate some aspects of the species's biology. Future research will measure the home range of the species and try to estimate the total population considering the range and suitable habitats (P. Develey in litt. 2007). In 2010, there were plans to radio-tag some individuals (R. T. Pinheiro in litt. 2010). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys to ascertain the species's range, numbers, population trends and the threats it faces. In particular, survey existing Protected Areas within the species's range (Jalapão National Park, Jalapão State Park, Lageado State Park and Indigenous Reserve Craos) to confirm its presence.

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
Dornas, T., do Valle, N. C., Hidasi, J. 2009. Celeus obrieni: dois novos registros históricos para o estado de Goiás. Atualidades Ornitológicas 149: 18-19.

Hidasi, J., Mendonça, L. G. A., Blamires, D. 2008. Primeiro registro documentado de Celeus obrieni (Picidae) para o estado de Goiás, Brasil. Ararajuba 16(4): 373-375.

Pacheco, J. F.; Maciel, E. 2009. Um registro recente e documentado de Celeus obrieni (Piciformes: Picidae) para o estado de Goiás. Atualidades Ornitológicas: 14.

Pinheiro, R. T.; Dornas, T. 2--8. New records and distribution of Kaempfer’s Woodpecker Celeus obrieni. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 16(2): 167-169.

Prado, A. D. do. 2006. Celeus obrieni: 80 anos depois. Atualidades Ornitológicas: 4-5.

Santos, M. P. D.; Vasconcelos, M. F. de. 2007. Range extension for Kaempfter's Woodpecker Celeus obrieni in Brazil, with the first male specimen. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 127(3): 249-252.

Santos, M. P.; Cerqueira, P. V.; Soares, L. M. 2010. Avifauna em seis localidades no Centro-Sul do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil. Ornithologia 4(1): 49-65.

Tobias, J. A.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Collar, N. J. 2006. Lost and found: a gap analysis for the Neotropical avifauna. Neotropical Birding: 4-22.

Text account compilers
Bird, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A. & Taylor, J.

Contributors
Alejandro, S., Develey, P., Dornas, T., Hennessey, A., Ingels, J., Kirwan, G., Olmos, F. & Pinheiro, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Celeus obrieni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Kaempfer’s woodpecker (Celeus obrieni) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)
Species name author Short, 1973
Population size 250-2499 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 806,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species