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Malaysian Plover Charadrius peronii

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it is likely to have a small to moderately small population which, owing to the development pressures on the coastal areas it inhabits, is likely to be undergoing a decline, although there is insufficient information available on its sub-population structure.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
Charadrius peronii is a breeding resident in Vietnam (scarce in Cochinchina), Cambodia (rare), peninsular Thailand (local and uncommon), Peninsular Malaysia (scarce to locally common), East Malaysia, Singapore (rare), Brunei (apparently declining), Philippines (widespread but uncommon) and Indonesia (local around coasts and offshore islands of Sumatra, uncommon on and around Borneo and Bali, very rare on mainland Java, and uncommon and sparsely distributed in the Lesser Sundas and the Sulawesi sub-region). The global population is thought to number 10,000-25,000 individuals.

Population justification
The population was estimated to number fewer than 10,000 individuals by Perennou et al. (1994), but BirdLife International (2001) noted that this may be an underestimate given the number of islands it inhabits. Therefore the population size is probably placed in the band 10,000-25,000 individuals, roughly equating to 6,700-17,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
There are no data on population trends; however, habitat loss, habitat degradation and disturbance, particularly in its breeding grounds, are likely to be causing a decline.

Ecology
It frequents quiet sandy bays, coral sand beaches, open dunes and artificial sand-fills, where it lives in pairs, generally not mixing with other waders. Juveniles feed in wetlands and mudflats (Yasué and Dearden 2008). The species primarily breeds in beach habitat, although research has shown saltflats are also suitable. The latter are likely to become more important as further development for tourism causes degradation of beaches in the species's range, particularly in Thailand (Yasué et al. 2007).

Threats
The species is absent from some apparently suitable areas, perhaps for ecological reasons not yet understood, and there is growing concern that it is under pressure from the development and disturbance of coastal habitat, particularly that causing coastal erosion on nesting beaches (Yasué et al. 2007).

Conservation Actions Underway
None are known. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys on the breeding and wintering grounds to estimate the size of the population and its specific habitat preferences. Oppose development schemes which destroy sites where the species is found. Promote restoration of saltflat habitats on abandoned aquaculture sites, which have less commercial value than beaches (Yasué et al. 2007).

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Perennou, C. P.; Mundkur, T.; Scott, D. A. 1994. The Asian Waterfowl Census 1987-1991: distribution and status of Asian waterfowl. IWRB and AWB, Slimbridge and Kuala Lumpur.

Yasué, M.; Dearden, P. 2008. Replacement nesting and double-brooding in Malaysian Plovers Charadrius peronii: effects of season and food availability. Ardea 96(1): 59-72.

Yasué, M.; Patterson, A.; Dearden, P. 2007. Are saltflats suitable supplementary nesting habitats for Malaysian Plovers Charadrius peronii threatened by beach habitat loss in Thailand? Bird Conservation International 17(3): 211-223.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Butchart, S., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S., Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Charadrius peronii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Charadriidae (Plovers)
Species name author Schlegel, 1865
Population size 6700-17000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,270,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species