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Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 42.3 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 13,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.300,000-460,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in China; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, >c.10,000 individuals on migration and >c.10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.100 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes    
Albania Native Extant      
Algeria Native Extant      
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant      
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Australia Vagrant Extant      
Austria Native Extant Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes    
Bahamas Native Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Barbados Native Extant      
Belgium Native Extant Yes   Yes
Belize Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Bhutan Native Extant      
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant      
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant      
Brunei Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant      
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Cambodia Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Canada Native Extant Yes    
Cape Verde Native Extant      
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
Chile Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Colombia Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Vagrant Extant      
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes  
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant Yes    
Cuba Native Extant      
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant      
Czech Republic Native Extant      
Denmark Native Extant Yes    
Djibouti Native Extant      
Dominica Native Extant      
Dominican Republic Native Extant      
Ecuador Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant Yes    
El Salvador Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant      
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Finland Vagrant Extant      
France Native Extant     Yes
Gabon Vagrant Extant      
Gambia Native Extant      
Georgia Native Extant Yes    
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes
Ghana Native Extant      
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant Yes    
Greece Native Extant     Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Guatemala Native Extant      
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Haiti Native Extant      
Honduras Native Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant Yes    
India Native Extant      
Indonesia Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes
Ireland Vagrant Extant      
Israel Native Extant Yes    
Italy Native Extant     Yes
Jamaica Native Extant      
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Native Extant     Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Laos Native Extant      
Latvia Vagrant Extant      
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes
Liberia Native Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant      
Maldives Vagrant Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Malta Native Extant      
Martinique (to France) Native Extant      
Mauritania Native Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes  
Moldova Native Extant Yes    
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant      
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant Yes    
Nicaragua Native Extant      
Niger Vagrant Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Oman Native Extant     Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palau Native Extant   Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes
Panama Native Extant      
Peru Native Extant      
Philippines Native Extant      
Poland Native Extant Yes    
Portugal Native Extant      
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant      
Qatar Native Extant      
Romania Native Extant Yes   Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Saudi Arabia Native Extant      
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant      
Seychelles Vagrant Extant      
Sierra Leone Native Extant      
Singapore Native Extant      
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant Yes    
Slovenia Native Extant      
Somalia Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Native Extant     Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant      
St Lucia Native Extant      
St Martin (to France) Native Extant      
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Sweden Native Extant Yes    
Switzerland Native Extant      
Syria Native Extant     Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant   Yes  
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes    
Thailand Native Extant      
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes Yes
Togo Native Extant      
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant     Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Uganda Vagrant Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant     Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant     Yes
USA Native Extant Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    
Venezuela Native Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant   Yes  
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant      
Western Sahara Native Extant Yes    
Yemen Native Extant     Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada site factsheet
Algeria Sebkhet Djendli site factsheet
Anguilla (to UK) Long Salt Pond site factsheet
Anguilla (to UK) West End Pond site factsheet
Austria Neusiedler See site factsheet
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen site factsheet
Bahrain Tubli Bay site factsheet
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Bonaire site factsheet
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex site factsheet
China (mainland) Bosten Lake site factsheet
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Coastal wetlands of northern Chongming Dao island site factsheet
China (mainland) Shijiu Hu (Jiangsu) site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai) site factsheet
China (mainland) Wenzhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Yueqing Wan site factsheet
Costa Rica Cahuita, Gandoca-Manzanillo and Migratory Bird Corridor site factsheet
Costa Rica Caribbean lowlands and wetlands site factsheet
Costa Rica Pacuare, coastal wetlands and Migratory Bird Corridor site factsheet
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs site factsheet
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes site factsheet
Ecuador Humedales de Pacoa site factsheet
Ecuador Lagunas de Ecuasal-Salinas site factsheet
Egypt El Malaha site factsheet
Egypt Lake Bardawil site factsheet
Egypt Lake Manzala site factsheet
Egypt Wadi El Natrun site factsheet
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
France Cap Gris-nez site factsheet
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie site factsheet
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme site factsheet
France Etangs Montpellierains site factsheet
France Etangs Narbonnais site factsheet
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban site factsheet
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine site factsheet
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers site factsheet
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou) site factsheet
Greece Amvrakikos gulf site factsheet
Greece Axios, Loudias, and Aliakmon estuaries site factsheet
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofilia forest, and Lamia marshes site factsheet
Greece Mesolongi and Aetoliko lagoons, and Acheloos and Evinos estuaries site factsheet
Greece Nestou delta and coastal lagoons site factsheet
Greece Porto Lagos, Lake Vistonis, and coastal lagoons (Lakes of Thrace) site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Ilha de Bolama - Rio Grande de Buba site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo site factsheet
Honduras Río Plátano site factsheet
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area site factsheet
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság site factsheet
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hammar site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Sa'adiyah site factsheet
Japan Banzu and Futtsu tidal flat site factsheet
Japan Osaka Nanko site factsheet
Japan Sone tidal flat site factsheet
Jordan Azraq site factsheet
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea site factsheet
Libya Benghazi site factsheet
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli site factsheet
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park site factsheet
Mongolia Airag Lake site factsheet
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla site factsheet
Morocco Oued Tahadart site factsheet
Morocco Sahb al Majnoun site factsheet
Morocco Sebkha Bou Areg site factsheet
Morocco Zone Humide de Laayoune site factsheet
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama site factsheet
Netherlands Grevelingen site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Volkerak site factsheet
Netherlands Markiezaat site factsheet
Netherlands Oosterschelde site factsheet
Netherlands Westerschelde and Saeftinghe site factsheet
Oman Al Batinah coast site factsheet
Oman Barr al Hikman site factsheet
Oman Masirah island site factsheet
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Philippines Manila Bay site factsheet
Portugal Ria de Aveiro site factsheet
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon) site factsheet
Portugal Tejo estuary site factsheet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Suroeste site factsheet
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău site factsheet
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin) site factsheet
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu) site factsheet
Romania Lake Bugeac site factsheet
Romania Lake Dunăreni site factsheet
Romania Lake Oltina site factsheet
Romania Lake Taşaul site factsheet
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans site factsheet
Russia (European) Lake El'ton site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay site factsheet
Senegal Delta du Saloum site factsheet
Senegal Ndiaël basin (including the 'Trois Marigots') site factsheet
Serbia Slano kopovo site factsheet
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone River Estuary site factsheet
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans site factsheet
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake) site factsheet
South Korea Baeksu tidal flat site factsheet
South Korea Cheonsu Bay site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Hampyeong Bay site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Muan tidal flat site factsheet
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Namyang Bay site factsheet
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Suncheon Bay site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island site factsheet
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes site factsheet
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes site factsheet
Spain Almenara marshes site factsheet
Spain Cádiz bay site factsheet
Spain Coast between Arinaga and Castillo del Romeral site factsheet
Spain Coast between Corralejo and Tostón site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain El Hondo wetland site factsheet
Spain El Moro marshes site factsheet
Spain Fuente de Piedra, Gosque and Campillos lakes site factsheet
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon site factsheet
Spain Island of Lobos site factsheet
Spain Janubio saltpans site factsheet
Spain Llobregat delta site factsheet
Spain Mar Menor coastal lagoon site factsheet
Spain Mata and Torrevieja lagoons site factsheet
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons site factsheet
Spain River Piedras marshes and Rompido sandbank site factsheet
Spain Salobrar de Campos Lagoons-Sa Vall site factsheet
Spain Salt-pans of Ibiza and Formentera and Freus isles site factsheet
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans site factsheet
Spain Sotavento beach site factsheet
Spain Wetlands of western Almería site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Hsinchu City Coastal Area site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Yungan site factsheet
Tunisia Boughrara site factsheet
Tunisia Kneiss site factsheet
Tunisia Sebkhet Dreïaa site factsheet
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia site factsheet
Turkey Acıgöl Lake site factsheet
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta site factsheet
Turkey Ceyhan Delta site factsheet
Turkey Erçek Lake site factsheet
Turkey Gediz Delta site factsheet
Turkey Göksu Delta site factsheet
Turkey Kocaçay Delta site factsheet
Turkey Seyhan Delta site factsheet
Turkey Sultan Marsh site factsheet
Turkey Tuz Lake site factsheet
Ukraine Elanchyk river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Kryva peninsula site factsheet
Ukraine Kuyal'nyts'kyj lyman site factsheet
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Khor al Beideh site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Khor Dubai site factsheet
USA Gilbert Bay/South Arm site factsheet
USA Gunnison Bay/North Arm site factsheet
USA Salton Sea site factsheet
Vietnam Binh Dai site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to UK) Anegada: Western salt ponds and coastal areas site factsheet
Yemen Al-Fazzah site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Excavations (open) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Excavations (open) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Ponds (below 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Salt Exploitation Sites suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Salt Exploitation Sites suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Desert Hot suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Desert Temperate suitable breeding
Desert Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Botulism (Clostridium botulinum) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Domestic & urban waste water / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Charadrius alexandrinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Charadriidae (Plovers)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 13,300,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Climate change species distributions