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LC
Forbes's Plover Charadrius forbesi

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Trend justification
The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the impacts of habitat modification on population sizes.

Ecology
Behaviour This species is an intra-African migrant (del Hoyo et al. 1996) that makes seasonal (Urban et al. 1986) local movements (Hayman et al. 1986) between its breeding areas and nearby grassland habitats (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It mainly breeds during the rains in solitary pairs, although the exact timing varies throughout its range (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It is not a gregarious species and usually forages singly (del Hoyo et al. 1996), but may occasionally occur in small loose flocks (Hayman et al. 1986) of 15-20 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996) during the dry season (Johsngard 1980). Habitat Breeding It breeds on rocky, upland (del Hoyo et al. 1996) hills and slopes (Johsngard 1980), especially on those with granite outcroppings (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Newly fledged broods may also forage in nearby cultivated fields and rice-paddies (Hayman et al. 1986). Non-breeding After breeding the species moves to short grassland habitats as well as forest clearings (Johsngard 1980, del Hoyo et al. 1996), bare ground, recently burnt areas, cultivated fields and the muddy edges of lakes, rivers, pools or reservoirs (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Its diet consists of adult and larval beetles, grasshoppers and other insects as well as small molluscs, crustaceans and worms (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a scrape positioned on top of a granite outcrop or on gravel in a stream bed (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species may use the same nest-site for several years (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

References
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Hayman, P.; Marchant, J.; Prater, A. J. 1986. Shorebirds. Croom Helm, London.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.

Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 1986. The birds of Africa vol. II. Academic Press, London.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Malpas, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Charadrius forbesi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Charadriidae (Plovers)
Species name author (Shelley, 1883)
Population size 6700-67000 mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,930,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change