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Three-banded Plover Charadrius tricollaris

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls.
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Taxonomic note

Charadrius tricollaris and C. bifrontatus (del Hoyo et al. 2013) were previously lumped as C. tricollaris following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Trend justification
The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the impacts of habitat modification on population sizes.

Ecology
Behaviour The migratory status of this species is poorly known (del Hoyo et al. 1996) but some populations may undergo partial intra-African dispersive movements in response to rainfall (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hockey et al. 2005). The species breeds opportunistically throughout the year although nesting usually peaks between April and September in the tropics, between July and December in the south and between July and September in Madagascar (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It nests in solitary pairs with territories (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) stretching 80-150 m along the shore (Hockey et al. 2005), and usually forages singly, in pairs or in small flocks of 6-10 up to 20 individuals (very rarely in larger groups of 40 individuals) (Urban et al. 1986). It roosts solitarily or in groups (del Hoyo et al. 1996), occasionally forming loose roosting flocks of more than one hundred individuals in the winter (Hockey et al. 2005). Habitat The species requires clear, firm sand, mud or gravel shores for nesting, foraging and roosting (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996). It inhabits the edges of inland freshwater lakes (del Hoyo et al. 1996), temporary or muddy pools (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996) and rivers (del Hoyo et al. 1996), streams with shingle banks (Johnsgard 1981), rice-paddies (Madagascar) (Langrand 1990), and the margins of artificial water-bodies (e.g. sewage tanks) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It also occurs along the coast on the edges of intertidal mudflats (Johnsgard 1981, Langrand 1990), sandy beaches (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996), coastal lagoons, estuaries (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hockey et al. 2005), tidal pools (Hockey et al. 2005), and mangroves (Langrand 1990) where shows a preference for the least saline areas (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Its diet consists of adult and larval aquatic and terrestrial insects, crustaceans, small molluscs and worms (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a simple scrape placed on sand, dry mud (del Hoyo et al. 1996), shingle (Hayman et al. 1986) or on rocks close to water (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Threats
The species may be susceptible to future outbreaks of avian botulism (Blaker 1967).

References
Blaker, D. 1967. An outbreak of Botulinus poisoning among waterbirds. Ostrich 38(2): 144-147.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Hayman, P.; Marchant, J.; Prater, A. J. 1986. Shorebirds. Croom Helm, London.

Hockey, P. A. R.; Dean, W. R. J.; Ryan, P. G. 2005. Roberts birds of southern Africa. Trustees of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town, South Africa.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.

Langrand, O. 1990. Guide to the birds of Madagascar. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 1986. The birds of Africa vol. II. Academic Press, London.

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Charadrius tricollaris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Charadriidae (Plovers)
Species name author Vieillot, 1818
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 9,410,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Climate change species distributions