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Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2011 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,980,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 9,820,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2002
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated at 692,000 individuals according to WPE3 population data, which are considered complete. National population estimates include: c.10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan, and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia.
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes
Albania Native Extant   Yes  
Algeria Native Extant      
Angola Native Extant      
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant      
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant      
Argentina Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant      
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Australia Native Extant      
Austria Native Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes  
Bahamas Native Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Barbados Native Extant      
Belarus Native Extant     Yes
Belgium Native Extant   Yes  
Belize Native Extant   Yes  
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant      
Bolivia Native Extant      
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant      
Botswana Vagrant Extant      
Brazil Native Extant      
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant      
Brunei Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes  
Burundi Vagrant Extant      
Cambodia Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Canada Native Extant     Yes
Cape Verde Native Extant      
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Chad Vagrant Extant      
Chile Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant   Yes  
Christmas Island (to Australia) Vagrant Extant      
Colombia Native Extant      
Comoros Native Extant      
Congo Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Cook Islands Vagrant Extant      
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes  
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Cuba Native Extant      
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant   Yes  
Denmark Native Extant   Yes Yes
Djibouti Native Extant      
Dominica Native Extant      
Dominican Republic Native Extant      
Ecuador Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
El Salvador Native Extant      
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant     Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Fiji Vagrant Extant     Yes
Finland Native Extant     Yes
France Native Extant   Yes Yes
French Guiana Native Extant      
Gabon Native Extant      
Gambia Native Extant      
Germany Native Extant   Yes Yes
Ghana Native Extant      
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Grenada Native Extant      
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant   Yes  
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Guatemala Native Extant      
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Guyana Native Extant      
Haiti Native Extant      
Honduras Native Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant   Yes  
Hungary Native Extant      
Iceland Vagrant Extant      
India Native Extant      
Indonesia Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes
Ireland Native Extant   Yes  
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Native Extant   Yes  
Jamaica Native Extant   Yes  
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Native Extant     Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant      
Kenya Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant     Yes
Laos Vagrant Extant      
Latvia Native Extant      
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes
Lesotho Vagrant Extant      
Liberia Native Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Madagascar Native Extant      
Malawi Vagrant Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant      
Maldives Native Extant      
Mali Vagrant Extant      
Malta Native Extant      
Marshall Islands Native Extant   Yes  
Martinique (to France) Native Extant      
Mauritania Native Extant      
Mauritius Native Extant      
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes  
Mongolia Native Extant      
Montenegro Native Extant   Yes  
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Mozambique Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
Nauru Vagrant Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes  
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant      
New Zealand Native Extant      
Nicaragua Native Extant      
Niger Vagrant Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Native Extant     Yes
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palau Native Extant   Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes Yes
Panama Native Extant      
Papua New Guinea Native Extant      
Paraguay Native Extant      
Peru Native Extant      
Philippines Native Extant      
Poland Native Extant     Yes
Portugal Native Extant   Yes  
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant      
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes
Réunion (to France) Native Extant      
Romania Native Extant   Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Rwanda Vagrant Extant      
São Tomé e Príncipe Vagrant Extant      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant   Yes  
Seychelles Native Extant      
Sierra Leone Native Extant      
Singapore Native Extant      
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant      
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes  
Solomon Islands Native Extant      
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Native Extant   Yes Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
St Helena (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant      
St Lucia Native Extant      
St Martin (to France) Native Extant   Yes  
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant     Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Suriname Native Extant      
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant      
Swaziland Vagrant Extant      
Sweden Native Extant     Yes
Switzerland Native Extant      
Syria Native Extant   Yes Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant      
Tanzania Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes Yes
Togo Native Extant      
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant   Yes  
Turkey Native Extant   Yes  
Turkmenistan Native Extant     Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant   Yes  
Uganda Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant   Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant   Yes Yes
Uruguay Native Extant   Yes  
USA Native Extant Yes    
Venezuela Native Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant      
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant   Yes  
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Western Sahara Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes
Zambia Vagrant Extant      
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Argentina Bahía de Samborombón y Punta Rasa site factsheet
Bahrain Tubli Bay site factsheet
Canada Barre de Portneuf site factsheet
Canada Beaverhill Lake site factsheet
Canada Big Piskwanish Point site factsheet
Canada Boundary Bay - Roberts Bank - Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary) site factsheet
Canada Creswell Bay site factsheet
Canada Eastern Lake St. Clair site factsheet
Canada Foxe Basin Islands site factsheet
Canada Île Rouge site factsheet
Canada Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest site factsheet
Canada Marais de Gros-Cacouna site factsheet
Canada Marais de Pointe-au-Père site factsheet
Canada Southern Bight, Minas Basin site factsheet
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Laizhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary site factsheet
Costa Rica Nicoya Gulf mangroves and coastal areas site factsheet
Denmark Fanø site factsheet
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea) site factsheet
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré site factsheet
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton site factsheet
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes site factsheet
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin site factsheet
France Cap Gris-nez site factsheet
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie site factsheet
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf site factsheet
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant site factsheet
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon site factsheet
French Guiana Amana site factsheet
French Guiana Ile de Cayenne site factsheet
French Guiana Littoral site factsheet
French Guiana Littoral Kourou site factsheet
French Guiana Littoral Macouria site factsheet
French Guiana Littoral Sinnamary site factsheet
French Guiana Plaine Kaw et Pointe Béhague site factsheet
Gabon Akanda site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Ilha de Bolama - Rio Grande de Buba site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo site factsheet
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Japan Inner Ariake bay site factsheet
Japan Inner Tokyo bay site factsheet
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park site factsheet
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec-Mar Muerto site factsheet
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla site factsheet
Morocco Lagune de Khnifiss site factsheet
Morocco Merja Zerga site factsheet
Mozambique Bazaruto Archipelago site factsheet
Namibia Walvis Bay site factsheet
Netherlands Ameland: Duinen-Oerd site factsheet
Netherlands Engelsmanplaat site factsheet
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast site factsheet
Netherlands Griend site factsheet
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast site factsheet
Netherlands Oosterschelde site factsheet
Netherlands Rottumeroog site factsheet
Netherlands Rottumerplaat site factsheet
Netherlands Schiermonnikoog site factsheet
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat site factsheet
Netherlands Wadden Sea site factsheet
Netherlands Westerschelde and Saeftinghe site factsheet
Oman Barr al Hikman site factsheet
Oman Masirah island site factsheet
Panama Upper Bay of Panamá site factsheet
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon) site factsheet
Portugal Tejo estuary site factsheet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Jobos Bay site factsheet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Suroeste site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey site factsheet
Russia (European) Seskar island site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay site factsheet
Senegal Delta du Saloum site factsheet
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone River Estuary site factsheet
Sierra Leone Yawri Bay site factsheet
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands site factsheet
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake) site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Namyang Bay site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island site factsheet
South Korea Yubu-do island site factsheet
Tunisia Kneiss site factsheet
Tunisia Sebkhet Dreïaa site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) North, Middle and East Caicos Ramsar Site site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Khor Dubai site factsheet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours site factsheet
United Kingdom Humber Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour site factsheet
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom The Swale site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
USA Teshekpuk Lake and East Dease Inlet site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pluvialis squatarola. Downloaded from on 20/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 20/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Charadriidae (Plovers)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,980,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species