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LC
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

Population justification
The global population is estimated at 692,000 individuals according to WPE3 population data, which are considered complete. National population estimates include: c.10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan, and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia.

Trend justification
The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.

Ecology
Behaviour This species is fully migratory (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It departs its breeding grounds from late-July to September (southward movements continuing into November) (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) and returns from late-May to June (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds from May to August (Hayman et al. 1986) in solitary well-dispersed pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and forages alone or in small loose flocks (Johnsgard 1981) of up to 30 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It is gregarious during the winter however, often roosting in large flocks containing up to several thousand individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding The species nests in the high Arctic in both upland and valley locations (del Hoyo et al. 1996) between the treeline and the coast (Snow and Perrins 1998) , utilising dry stony tundra with sedge, moss, lichen (del Hoyo et al. 1996), grass (Johnsgard 1981) or dwarf birch (Snow and Perrins 1998), peat ridges in tundra marshes (Johnsgard 1981), dry exposed ridges, riverbanks, raised sand or gravel beaches, and rocky slopes (Johnsgard 1981). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season the species frequents intertidal mudflats, saltmarshes (del Hoyo et al. 1996), sandflats (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996) and beaches (del Hoyo et al. 1996) of oceanic coastlines, bays and estuaries (Johnsgard 1981). During migration it may also be found inland on lakes, pools or grasslands (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Breeding During the breeding season the diet of this species consists largely of adult and larval insects such as beetles and Diptera (del Hoyo et al. 1996) as well as some plant matter (e.g. grass seeds and stems) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding When on the coast in its wintering range the species takes marine polychaete worms, molluscs and crustaceans (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (e.g. crabs, sand shrimps) (Johnsgard 1981), occasionally also taking insects (e.g. grasshoppers and beetles) or earthworms when in inland habitats on passage (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow scrape (del Hoyo et al. 1996) on dry ground in exposed, stony sites (Snow and Perrins 1998), neighbouring nests not less than 400 m apart (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Management information In the UK there is evidence that the removal of Spartina anglica from tidal mudflats using a herbicide is beneficial for the species (Evans 1986).

References
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Evans, P. R. 1986. Use of the Herbicide 'Dalapon' for Control of Spartina Encroaching on Intertidal Mudflats: Beneficial Effects on Shorebirds. Colonial Waterbirds 9(1): 171-175.

Hayman, P.; Marchant, J.; Prater, A. J. 1986. Shorebirds. Croom Helm, London.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.

Snow, D. W.; Perrins, C. M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic vol. 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pluvialis squatarola. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Charadriidae (Plovers)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,980,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species