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Rufous-tailed Hummingbird Amazilia tzacatl
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
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This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

Taxonomic note
Amazilia tzacatl (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) was previously split into A. tzacatl and A. handleyi following Wetmore (1968), but these two taxa have now been lumped as A. tzacatl following AOU (1998) and a review by the BirdL

Distribution and population
The subspecies handleyi was formerly treated as specifically distinct and threatened. It is endemic to Isla Escudo de Veraguas in the Caribbean, off the coast of Bocas del Toro, Panama (S. Olson per G. Graves in litt. 1996). It was glimpsed occasionally in March 1958, and five specimens were collected during five days in March 1962 (S. Olson per G. Graves in litt. 1996).

Population justification
Partners in Flight estimate the total population to number 0.5-4.99 million individuals (A. Panjabi in litt. 2008). The subspecies handleyi was formerly treated as specifically distinct and threatened, however more recent surveys have found the species to be abundant, albeit within an extremely small range (S. Olson per G. Graves in litt. 1996).

The subspecies handleyi has been observed feeding on the flowers of low bushes in coastal areas (Wetmore 1968).

The small size of Isla Escudo de Veraguas makes the subspecies handleyi inherently susceptible to extinction. There are many potential threats, including hurricanes, fire, establishment of non-native species and development for tourism.

Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed under CITES Appendix II.

AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Wetmore, A. 1968. The birds of the Republic of Panamá, part 2: Columbidae to Picidae. Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Taylor, J., Gilroy, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Amazilia tzacatl. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Species name author (de la Llave, 1833)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,030,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species