This taxon is Not Recognised as a species by BirdLife International.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Gallinago gallinago and G. delicata (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as G. gallinago following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).
Distribution and population
This species has a large global population estimated to be >5,400,000-7,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2002).
Behaviour This species is fully migratory although some populations only migrate short distances (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds from April to August (Hayman et al. 1986) in solitary territorial pairs and after breeding it moves to moulting areas before migrating south to the wintering grounds (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It is not a truly gregarious species (Snow and Perrins 1998) although it usually forages in small groups (del Hoyo et al. 1996), occasionally also gathering in larger flocks of several hundred during migration or in the winter (Hayman et al. 1986). The species is also generally crepuscular in its activities (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding The species breeds on fresh or brackish marshland with rich or tussocky vegetation (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) including grassy or marshy edges of lakes and rivers (del Hoyo et al. 1996), marshy bogs and moors (Johnsgard 1981), marshy tundra, wet meadows (del Hoyo et al. 1996), peat bogs, fens, swamps (North America) (Johnsgard 1981) and swampy forest (Flint et al. 1984). Non-breeding In its wintering range the species frequents similar habitats to those it breeds in (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) including permanent and temporary swamps, the marshy edges of lakes and dams, flooded sedge and grassland (Grishanov 2006), also utilising more artificial habitats such as damp farmland (Hayman et al. 1986) (e.g. cattle pastures, sugar-cane fields (Johnsgard 1981), rice-fields (del Hoyo et al. 1996)), sewage farms (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and drainage ditches (Johnsgard 1981). The species may also move to more coastal areas such as the upper reaches of estuaries and coastal meadows (del Hoyo et al. 1996) during periods of frost (Snow and Perrins 1998). Diet Its diet consists of adult and larval insects, earthworms, small crustaceans (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (e.g. isopods and amphipods) (Johnsgard 1981), small gastropods, spiders (del Hoyo et al. 1996), small amphibians (Africa) (Grishanov 2006) and occasionally plant fibres, seeds and grit (Johnsgard 1981). Breeding site The nest is a shallow scrape (Snow and Perrins 1998) positioned on dry ground in marshes, fens, swamps and bogs (Johnsgard 1981) (e.g. on a mound or sedge tuft) (Flint et al. 1984) in the cover of grass, rushes, sedge or sphagnum moss (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species nests in solitary territorial pairs at densities of between 10 and 38 or up to 110 pairs per kilometre (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Management information Studies in Danish coastal wetlands found that the spatial restriction of shore-based shooting was more successful at maintaining waterfowl population sizes than was the temporal restriction of shooting, and therefore that wildfowl reserves should incorporate shooting-free refuges that include adjacent marshland in order to ensure high waterbird species diversity (Bregnballe et al. 2004). The species is known to show increased hatching successes when ground predators have been excluded by erecting protective fences around nesting areas (Jackson 2001). At a reserve in the UK management strategies such as reseeding grasslands to be dominated by rushes Juncus spp. and purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea, mechanical cutting and grazing, digging small scrapes and maintaining high water-levels succeeded in attracting an increased number of breeding pairs to the area (Holton and Allcorn 2006). The annual success of reproduction is estimated every year by wing surveys in Denmark since the 1970s and in France since the mid-1990s (Clausager 2006). Hunting bags are estimated every year in Denmark (Clausager 2006).
The species is threatened by habitat changes such as wetland drainage (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and grassland improvement (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (e.g. through drainage, inorganic fertilising and reseeding) (Baines 1988). Important migratory stop-over habitats in the Kaliningrad region of Russia are also threatened by petroleum pollution, wetland and flood-plain drainage (for irrigation and water management), peat-extraction, reedbed mowing and burning, and abandonment and changing land management practices leading to scrub and reed overgrowth (Grishanov 2006). The species suffers from lead poisoning as a result of ingesting lead shot deposited on wetlands (Mateo et al. 1998, Mondain-Monval et al. 2002, Olivier 2006), suffers nest predation by introduced mammals (e.g. European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus) on islands (Jackson 2001), and is susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the viurs (Melville and Shortridge 2006). Utilisation The species is hunted for sport (e.g. in Denmark) (Bregnballe et al. 2006).
Baines, D. 1988. The effects of improvement of upland grassland on the distribution and density of breeding wading birds (Charadriiformes) in northern England. Biological Conservation 45: 221-236.
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.
Bregnballe, T.; Madsen, J., Rasmussen, P. A. F. 2004. Effects of temporal and spatial hunting control in waterbird reserves. Biological Conservation 119: 93-104.
Bregnballe, T.; Noer, H.; Christensen, T. K.; Clausen, P.; Asferg, T.; Fox, A. D.; Delany, S. 2006. Sustainable hunting of migratory waterbirds: the Danish approach. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 854-860. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Butler, C. J. 2003. The disproportionate effect of global warming on the arrival dates of short-distance migratory birds in North America. Ibis 145: 484-495.
Clausager, I. 2006. Wing survey of Woodcock and Snipe in Denmark. International Wader Studies 11: 106-112.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Flint, V. E.; Boehme, R. L.; Kostin, Y. V.; Kuznetsov, A. A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Grishanov, D. 2006. Conservation problems of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds and their habitats in the Kaliningrad region of Russia. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 356. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Hayman, P.; Marchant, J.; Prater, A. J. 1986. Shorebirds. Croom Helm, London.
Holton, N.; Allcorn, R. I. 2006. The effectiveness of opening up rush patches on encouraging breeding common snipe Gallinago gallinago at Rogersceugh Farm, Campfield Marsh RSPB reserve, Cumbria, England. Conservation Evidence 3: 79-80.
Jackson, D. B. 2001. Experimental Removal of Introduced Hedgehogs Improves Wader Nest Success in the Western Isles, Scotland. Journal of Applied Ecology 38(4): 802-812.
Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.
Mateo, R.; Belliure, J.; Dolz, J. C.; Aguilar-Serrano, J. M.; Guitart, R. . 1998. High prevalences of lead poisoning in wintering waterfowl in Spain. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 35: 342-347.
Melville, D. S.; Shortridge, K. F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Mondain-Monval, J. Y.; Desnouhes, L.; Taris, J. P. 2002. Lead shot ingestion in waterbirds in the Camargue, (France). Game and Wildlife Science 19(3): 237-246.
Olivier, G-N. 2006. Considerations on the use of lead shot over wetlands. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 866-867. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Snow, D. W.; Perrins, C. M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic vol. 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Vahatalo, A. V.; Rainio, K.; Lehikoinen, A.; Lehikoinen, E. 2004. Spring arrival of birds depends on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Avian Biology 35: 210-216.
Yarovikova, J. 2006. The state and conservation problems of key stop-over sites of migratory Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago in the Kaliningrad region of Russia. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 355. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)
Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Fisher, S., Malpas, L.
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Gallinago gallinago. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Not Recognised|
|Family||Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)|
|Species name author||(Linnaeus, 1758)|