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Black Stilt Himantopus novaezelandiae

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered
Endangered B1ab(iii);D1+2 
Vulnerable B1ab(iii);D 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2007 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 195 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,800 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,800 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 27 good Observed 2008
Population trend Increasing good -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 40 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.3 - - -
Population justification: The estimate of 40 individuals (roughly equivalent to 27 mature individuals) is based on 20 productive breeding pairs at end of 2007-2008 season; a total of 78 'mature individuals' were counted in 2008 (R. Maloney in litt. 2008), but it is unclear how many of these were captive bred and have not yet bred in the wild successfully.
Trend justification: The number of productive breeding pairs roughly doubled during 1995-2005, to 17 breeding pairs in the wild, with a further increase to 20 productive pairs in 2007-2008, but these figures conceal a fair amount of fluctuation. Furthermore, the apparent increase is largely thanks to the annual release of captive-bred subadults and juveniles (93 birds in 2007-2008; R. Maloney in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
New Zealand Native Extant       Yes

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Broom (Cytisus scoparius) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Crack Willow (Salix fragilis) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Ferret (Mustela furo) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Stoat (Mustela erminea) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / West European Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Hybridisation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Himantopus novaezelandiae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Recurvirostridae (Avocets, Stilts)
Species name author Gould, 1841
Population size 27 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,800 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species