This species has been uplisted to Near Threatened on the basis that it is expected to undergo a moderately rapid population decline over the next three generations owing to human pressures on riverine ecosystems and the construction of dams. It has already undergone precipitous declines in South-East Asia but its status currently appears more secure in India.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
The retention of the genus Esacus follows Andrew (1992) contra Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), because its merger with Burhinus does not do justice to the highly distinctive nature of Burhinus (=Esacus) giganteus
Distribution and populationEsacus recurvirostris
Burhinus recurvirostris Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
occurs across a wide range in southern Asia, being found in Iran, Pakistan
, Sri Lanka, Nepal
and southern China
(del Hoyo et al
. 1996). Formerly numerous, in Bangladesh there have been hardly any sightings in the last 20 years (P. Thompson in litt.
2013), while in Nepal it has declined in range and population and may now be restricted to the Koshi Barrage area, with the national population now possibly as low as ten individuals (C. Inskipp & H. S. Baral in litt.
2013). The recent status in Myanmar is poorly-known, but it has disappeared from Bagan since 1995 (C. Robson in litt.
2013), although the country still contains large tracts of potentially suitable habitat. In Laos the major losses occurred decades ago but declines have continued (surveys in 1997-2004 found a large population in the Mekong between Vientiane and Louangphabang, but an intensive survey there in 2011-2012 found no birds), and national extinction seems likely (J. W. Duckworth in litt.
2013). It remains more numerous on the Indian subcontinent, where it prefers larger rivers but also occurs on still water, but declines are believed to have taken place here too (P. Jayadevan in litt.
The population is estimated to number 1,000-25,000 individuals, roughly equating to 670-17,000 mature individuals.Trend justification
Precipitous declines have occurred in parts of South-East Asia, but trends in India, which now probably holds the bulk of the population, are less clear, making analysis of past population trends difficult. Nevertheless, the species is expected to undergo a moderately rapid reduction over the next three generations, as threats, such as dam construction and disturbance, increase in prevalence.Ecology
It favours riverbed shingle and rocks, stony banks and mud around large lakes, but sometimes visits nearby grassy flats and also occurs infrequently on coastal beaches and estuaries. It is largely sedentary, but undergoes local movements forced by rising water levels (del Hoyo et al.
Nest predation by dogs, disturbance by fishermen and domestic animals, and opportunistic harvesting has caused chronically low breeding success of riverine nesting birds throughout South-East Asia (Goes in press). In Nepal the species is seriously threatened by disturbance and the degradation and loss of its riverine habitat. The multitude of hydroelectric dam projects completed, underway and planned on large rivers in its range, which threaten to alter flow regimes and inundate nesting habitat downstream, is now perhaps the most significant threat across much of the range. On the Sesan and Sekong rivers in Cambodia, the species has nearly disappeared (A. Claassen in litt.
2013). This recent precipitous decline on the Sesan is probably due to upstream Vietnamese dams (sudden water level rises inundating nests), and imminent extinction there seems unavoidable, and with further dams planned the fate of the small Sekong population does not seem more promising, even if appropriate conservation actions are implemented (Goes in press). Planned hydro-power dams on the main Mekong channel in southern Laos, at Stung Treng and Sambor (Kratie) would lead to major alteration of flood regimes and river ecology if built, and could arguably lead to regional extinction in the medium term (Goes in press).Conservation and research actions in place
No targeted conservation actions are known for this species, although some of its habitat is protected.Conservation and research actions proposed
There is urgent need for nest-protection programmes and monitoring of human activities during the dry season. Carry out regular surveys to monitor population trends throughout its range. Quantify the severity and impact of threats across its range. Carry out awareness-raising activities to alleviate human pressures on riverine ecosystems, and lobby against high-impact dam projects. Increase the area of suitable habitat that receives effective protection.
Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Goes, F. Birds of Cambodia: an Annotated Checklist.
Thewlis, R. M.; Timmins, R. J.; Evans, T. D.; Duckworth, J. W. 1998. The conservation status of birds in Laos.
Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species
Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection
Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J. & Symes, A.
Srinivasan, S., Krishnan, A., Duckworth, J.W., Thompson, P., Jayadevan, P., Claassen, A., Robson, C., Timmins, R., Porter, R., Goes, F., Baral, H. & Inskipp, C.
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Esacus recurvirostris. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 28/10/2016.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 28/10/2016.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000)
Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004)
Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.