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NT
Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A4abc 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2015 Near Threatened
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing Estimated -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.6 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.1,085,000-1,285,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The minimum European population in winter is estimated at 1,000-1,800 individuals, which equates to 690-1,200 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The population wintering in West Africa is estimated at 350,000-450,000 individuals (van Roomen et al. 2015).
Trend justification: Population trends are very difficult to determine for this species, however overall it is suspected to be declining. The population wintering in south-west Asia, the Middle East and east and southern Africa is estimated to have undergone a moderate long-term increase and a large decline in the short-term (since c. 2007) (Nagy et al. 2014). However the data had limited coverage, particularly in the Red Sea and southern Gulf. A wintering population of c. 45,000 individuals at Walvis Bay and Sandwich Harbour in Namibia was stable between 1990 and 2013 (Simmons et al. 2015).

In West Africa count data show the population experienced a short-term decline between 2003 and 2014 and a long-term decline between 1979 and 2014 (32.9% decline over three generations (23 years)) (van Roomen et al. 2014). At Banc d'Arguin (Mauritania) and Bijagos (Guinea Bissau), the strongholds of the West African wintering population, the population has been decreasing (M. van Roomen in litt. 2015). However Dodman (2014) did not find a population decline, instead suggesting that the population was continuing to increase. This population trend is therefore uncertain. The population trend in the south Asian wintering population is unknown (Wetlands International 2015). Approximately 11-12% of the global population uses the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. An analysis of monitoring data from around Australia and New Zealand estimated the population had declined by 80.5% in three generations (Studds et al. in prep.). The decline observed in Australia may be representative of the whole flyway, however Amano et al. (2010) found no clear trend between 1978 and 2008.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes  
Albania Native Extant     Yes  
Algeria Native Extant        
Angola Native Extant        
Anguilla (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Antigua and Barbuda Vagrant Extant        
Armenia Native Extant        
Australia Native Extant        
Austria Native Extant        
Azerbaijan Native Extant     Yes  
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Barbados Native Extant        
Belarus Native Extant        
Belgium Native Extant        
Benin Native Extant   Yes    
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Bhutan Vagrant Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant        
Botswana Native Extant        
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant        
Brunei Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes    
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Burundi Native Extant        
Cambodia Native Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Canada Vagrant Extant        
Cape Verde Native Extant        
Central African Republic Native Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Christmas Island (to Australia) Native Extant        
Comoros Native Extant        
Congo Native Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant        
Costa Rica Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant     Yes  
Cyprus Native Extant        
Czech Republic Native Extant        
Denmark Native Extant     Yes  
Djibouti Native Extant        
Dominica Vagrant Extant        
Ecuador Vagrant Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant   Yes    
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant        
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Finland Native Extant     Yes  
France Native Extant     Yes  
French Southern Territories Vagrant Extant        
Gabon Native Extant        
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant        
Germany Native Extant     Yes  
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Greece Native Extant     Yes  
Grenada Vagrant Extant        
Guadeloupe (to France) Vagrant Extant        
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant        
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
India Native Extant        
Indonesia Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Iraq Native Extant     Yes  
Ireland Native Extant        
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant     Yes  
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Native Extant     Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant        
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant        
Laos Vagrant Extant        
Latvia Native Extant        
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Lesotho Vagrant Extant        
Liberia Native Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant        
Madagascar Native Extant        
Malawi Native Extant        
Malaysia Native Extant   Yes    
Maldives Native Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Marshall Islands Vagrant Extant        
Martinique (to France) Vagrant Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Mauritius Native Extant        
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant        
Mexico Vagrant Extant        
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes    
Moldova Native Extant        
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant        
Montserrat (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant     Yes  
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant        
New Zealand Native Extant        
Niger Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
Norway Native Extant     Yes  
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palau Native Extant   Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes  
Papua New Guinea Native Extant        
Peru Vagrant Extant        
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant     Yes  
Portugal Native Extant   Yes    
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
Qatar Native Extant     Yes  
Réunion (to France) Native Extant        
Romania Native Extant     Yes  
Russia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Rwanda Native Extant        
São Tomé e Príncipe Vagrant Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant        
Seychelles Native Extant        
Sierra Leone Native Extant        
Singapore Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant        
Solomon Islands Native Extant        
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Sri Lanka Native Extant   Yes    
St Kitts and Nevis Vagrant Extant        
St Lucia Vagrant Extant        
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Vagrant Extant     Yes  
St Vincent and the Grenadines Vagrant Extant        
Sudan Native Extant        
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant        
Swaziland Native Extant        
Sweden Native Extant     Yes  
Switzerland Native Extant        
Syria Native Extant     Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Togo Native Extant        
Trinidad and Tobago Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Tunisia Native Extant   Yes    
Turkey Native Extant        
Turkmenistan Native Extant        
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes  
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant     Yes  
USA Native Extant   Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant        
Virgin Islands (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Zambia Native Extant        
Zimbabwe Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Australia Lake MacLeod site factsheet
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
Gabon Akanda site factsheet
Ghana Keta Lagoon Ramsar Site site factsheet
Ghana Songor Ramsar Site site factsheet
Greece Amvrakikos gulf site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Ilha de Bolama - Rio Grande de Buba site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo site factsheet
India Kaliveli Tank and Yeduyanthittu estuary site factsheet
Italy Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake site factsheet
Kenya Tana River Delta site factsheet
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast site factsheet
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast site factsheet
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park site factsheet
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama site factsheet
Namibia Sandwich Harbour site factsheet
Namibia Walvis Bay site factsheet
Oman Barr al Hikman site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons site factsheet
Senegal Delta du Saloum site factsheet
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone River Estuary site factsheet
Sierra Leone Yawri Bay site factsheet
South Africa Berg River Estuary site factsheet
South Africa Olifants river estuary site factsheet
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Sri Lanka Amaipaddukkai site factsheet
Sri Lanka Araly South-Punalai site factsheet
Sri Lanka Periyakalapuwa mouth site factsheet
Sri Lanka Seguwantive mudflats site factsheet
Tanzania Rufiji Delta site factsheet
Tunisia Kneiss site factsheet
Tunisia Salines de Thyna site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) Suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Salt Exploitation Sites Suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land Suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) Suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra Major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes Suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats Major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline Suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline Suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc Suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc Suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches Suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches Suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools Suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools Suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope Suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) Suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate Suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate Suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon Suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel Suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries Suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) Suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes Suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) Suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) Major breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture / Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Clostridium botulinum Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (commercial use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Subsistence, National
Food - human - - - Subsistence, National

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Calidris ferruginea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/02/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/02/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)
Species name author (Pontoppidan 1763)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,200,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change
- 2015 European Red List assessment