This species has been uplisted to Near Threatened owing to a global population decline which is thought to approach the threshold for Vulnerable under the population size reduction criterion (A4abc). The species has an extremely large range and the overall population trend is very difficult to determine due to varying trends in different populations along different flyways. The population using the East Asian-Australasian Flyway is thought to be experiencing severe declines due to habitat loss in the Yellow Sea. Should new information arise providing clarification on the overall population trend it may warrant uplisting or downlisting.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Calidris paramelanotos (Hayman et al.1986) was treated as a subspecies of C. melanotos following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993) but is now considered a hybrid of C. melanotus and C. ferruginea following Higgins and Davies (1996). Calidris cooperi was described by Baird in 1858 based on a specimen collected on Long Island, New York, USA in May 1833 (Cox 1990b). There is a possible Australian record of a bird captured at Stockton, New South Wales, Australia, in March 1981 (Cox 1990a), but studies of the type suggest that the form is of hybrid origin, Curlew Sandpiper C. ferruginea and Sharp-tailed Sandpiper C. acuminata (Cox 1990b).
18-23 cm medium-sized sandpiper. Longish neck and legs and long, decurved bill. Head, neck and all upperparts rusty rufous to deep chestnut-red, with dark streaks on crown. Mantle and scapulars dark brown with chestnut and whitish fringes. Wing coverts greyer. Female normally has longer bill, paler and more likely to have white barring on underparts. Non-breeding adult plain grey above, white below, white supercilium and sides of breast washed grey. Juvenile similar to non-breeding adult (Van Gils and Wiersma 1996).
Amano, T.; Szekely, T.; Koyama, K.; Amano, H.; Sutherland, W. J. 2010. A framework for monitoring the status of populations: an example from wader populations in the East Asian-Australasian flyway. Biological Conservation 143: 2238-2247.
Balachandran, S. 2006. The decline in wader populations along the east coast of India with special reference to Point Calimere, south-east India. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 296-301. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Barter, M. 2002. Shorebirds of the Yellow Sea. Wetlands International, Canberra, Australia.
Barter, M. A. 2006. The Yellow Sea - a vitally important staging region for migratory shorebirds. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 663-667. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Beaumont, L. J.; McAllan, I. A. W.; Hughes, L. 2006. A matter of timing: changes in the first date of arrival and last date of departure of Australian migratory birds. Global Change Biology 12: 1339-1354.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Blaker, D. 1967. An outbreak of Botulinus poisoning among waterbirds. Ostrich 38(2): 144-147.
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.
del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., and Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Dodman, T. 2014. Status, Estimates and Trends of Waterbird Populations in Africa: AEWA-listed African populations. Wetlands International.
Gaidet, N., Dodman, T., Caron, A., Balanca, G., Desvaux, S., Goutard, F., Cattoli, G., Lamarque, F., Hagemeijer, W. and Monicat, F. 2007. Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13(4): 626-629.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.
Kelin, C.; Qiang, X. 2006. Conserving migratory shorebirds in the Yellow Sea region. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 319. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Melville, D. S.; Shortridge, K. F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Murray, N.J., Clemens, R.S., Phinn, S.R., Possingham, H.P. and Fuller, R.A. 2014. Tracking the rapid loss of tidal wetlands in the Yellow Sea. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12: 267-272.
Nagy, S., Flink, S. and Langendoen, T. 2014. Waterbird trends 1988-2012: Results of trend analyses of data from the International Waterbird Census in the African-Eurasian Flyway. Wetlands International, Ede.
Simmons, R.E., Kolberg, H., Braby, R. and Erni, B. 2015. Declines in migrant shorebird populations from a winter-quarter perspective. Conservation Biology 29(3): 877-887.
Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Studds, C.E. et al. in prep.. Dependence on the Yellow Sea predicts population collapse in a migratory flyway.
Urban, E.K., Fry, C.H. and Keith, S. 1986. The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.
Van Gils, J. and Wiersma, P. 1996. Curlew Sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
van Heerden, J. 1974. Botulism in the Orange Free State goldfields. Ostrich 45(3): 182-184.
van Roomen M., Nagy S., Foppen R., Dodman T., Citegetse G. and Ndiaye A. 2015. Status of coastal waterbird populations in the East Atlantic Flyway. With special attention to flyway populations making use of the Wadden Sea. Programme Rich Wadden Sea, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands, Sovon, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands, BirdLife International, Cambridge, United Kingdom &, Common Wadden Sea Secretariat, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.
van Roomen, M., van Winden, E. and Langendoen, T. 2014. The assessment of trends and population sizes of a selection of waterbird species and populations from the coastal East Atlantic Flyway for Conservation Status Report 6 of The African Eurasian Waterbird Agreement.
Wearne, K.; Underhill, L. G. 2005. Walvis Bay, Namibia: a key wetland for waders and other coastal birds in southern Africa. Wader Study Group Bulletin 107: 24-30.
Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: wpe.wetlands.org. (Accessed: 17/09/2015).
Yang, H.Y., Chen, B., Barter, M., Piersma, T., Zhou, C-F., Li, F-S. and Zhang, Z-W. 2011. Impacts of tidal land reclamation in Bohai Bay, China: ongoing losses of critical Yellow Sea waterbird staging and wintering sites. Bird Conservation International 21: 241-259.
Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)
Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Malpas, L., Symes, A. & Ashpole, J
Meltofte, H., Porter, R., Vyas, V., van Roomen, M., Nagy, S. & Balachandran, S.
IUCN Red List evaluators
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Calidris ferruginea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/07/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/07/2016.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Near Threatened|
|Family||Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)|
|Species name author||(Pontoppidan 1763)|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||1,200,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
- Additional Information on this species|
- Projected distributions under climate change
- 2015 European Red List assessment