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Dunlin Calidris alpina

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,960,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 5,810,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.1 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.4,600,000-6,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while national population estimates include: < c.10,000 individuals on migration and > c.10,000 wintering individuals in China; > c.1,000 individuals on migration and > c.1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; > c.1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; > c.1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations are stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes
Albania Native Extant   Yes  
Algeria Native Extant      
Antigua and Barbuda Vagrant Extant      
Armenia Native Extant      
Australia Vagrant Extant      
Austria Native Extant     Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes  
Bahamas Vagrant Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Barbados Vagrant Extant      
Belarus Native Extant Yes   Yes
Belgium Native Extant      
Belize Vagrant Extant     Yes
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Vagrant Extant      
Brunei Vagrant Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes  
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Burundi Vagrant Extant      
Cameroon Vagrant Extant      
Canada Native Extant     Yes
Cape Verde Native Extant      
Cayman Islands (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Chad Vagrant Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Vagrant Extant      
Costa Rica Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Cuba Vagrant Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant   Yes  
Denmark Native Extant     Yes
Djibouti Native Extant      
Dominica Vagrant Extant      
Dominican Republic Vagrant Extant      
Ecuador Vagrant Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant Yes    
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant      
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes
France Native Extant   Yes Yes
French Guiana Vagrant Extant      
Gambia Native Extant      
Georgia Native Extant      
Germany Native Extant     Yes
Ghana Vagrant Extant      
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes    
Guadeloupe (to France) Vagrant Extant      
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Guatemala Vagrant Extant      
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant   Yes  
Hungary Native Extant      
Iceland Native Extant Yes   Yes
India Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes
Ireland Native Extant      
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Native Extant   Yes Yes
Jamaica Vagrant Extant      
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant      
Kenya Vagrant Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant      
Laos Vagrant Extant      
Latvia Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes
Liberia Native Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Vagrant Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant Yes    
Luxembourg Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Malaysia Vagrant Extant      
Maldives Native Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Malta Native Extant      
Martinique (to France) Vagrant Extant      
Mauritania Native Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes  
Moldova Native Extant      
Mongolia Vagrant Extant      
Montenegro Native Extant   Yes  
Montserrat (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant      
New Zealand Vagrant Extant      
Nicaragua Vagrant Extant      
Niger Vagrant Extant      
Nigeria Vagrant Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Native Extant Yes   Yes
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palau Native Extant   Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes Yes
Panama Vagrant Extant      
Paraguay Vagrant Extant      
Peru Vagrant Extant      
Philippines Vagrant Extant      
Poland Native Extant     Yes
Portugal Native Extant   Yes  
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vagrant Extant      
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes
Romania Native Extant   Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant   Yes  
Sierra Leone Native Extant      
Singapore Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant      
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Somalia Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Native Extant   Yes Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
St Kitts and Nevis Vagrant Extant      
St Lucia Vagrant Extant      
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant   Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines Vagrant Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Native Extant Yes    
Sweden Native Extant Yes   Yes
Switzerland Native Extant   Yes  
Syria Native Extant   Yes Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Togo Vagrant Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant   Yes  
Turkey Native Extant   Yes  
Turkmenistan Native Extant      
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Uganda Vagrant Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant   Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant     Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Unknown Extant      
USA Native Extant Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant      
Venezuela Vagrant Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant   Yes  
Virgin Islands (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Virgin Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant      
Western Sahara Vagrant Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bahrain Tubli Bay site factsheet
Canada Boundary Bay - Roberts Bank - Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary) site factsheet
Canada East Point site factsheet
China (mainland) Anqing wetlands (Caizi Hu, Wuchang Hu and other lakes) site factsheet
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Hangzhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Taizhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Wenzhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Xuanmen Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Yong Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Yueqing Wan site factsheet
Denmark Fanø site factsheet
Denmark Mandø site factsheet
Denmark Nissum Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat site factsheet
Denmark Rømø site factsheet
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø site factsheet
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea) site factsheet
Estonia Lahemaa site factsheet
Estonia Lõu bay site factsheet
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW) site factsheet
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort site factsheet
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré site factsheet
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton site factsheet
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc site factsheet
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin site factsheet
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes site factsheet
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec site factsheet
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin site factsheet
France Cap Gris-nez site factsheet
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie site factsheet
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf site factsheet
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant site factsheet
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon site factsheet
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area site factsheet
Iceland Ósasvædi Ölfusár site factsheet
Iceland Skardsfjördur site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hammar site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Sa'adiyah site factsheet
Japan Fujimae tidal flat site factsheet
Japan Hakata bay site factsheet
Japan Inner Ariake bay site factsheet
Japan Inner Tokyo bay site factsheet
Japan Shiokawa tidal flat site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Lithuania Flooded coastal meadows near Tyrai bog site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park site factsheet
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla site factsheet
Netherlands Ameland: Duinen-Oerd site factsheet
Netherlands Balgzand site factsheet
Netherlands Dollard site factsheet
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast site factsheet
Netherlands Griend site factsheet
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast site factsheet
Netherlands Oosterschelde site factsheet
Netherlands Rottumeroog site factsheet
Netherlands Rottumerplaat site factsheet
Netherlands Schiermonnikoog site factsheet
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat site factsheet
Netherlands Wadden Sea site factsheet
Netherlands Westerschelde and Saeftinghe site factsheet
North Korea Orangchon River estuary site factsheet
Oman Barr al Hikman site factsheet
Oman Khawr Ghawi site factsheet
Portugal Ria de Aveiro site factsheet
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon) site factsheet
Portugal Sado estuary site factsheet
Portugal Tejo estuary site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bol'shoye and Maloye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Konstantin and Tugur bays site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Korfa bay (northern part) site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay site factsheet
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake) site factsheet
South Korea Baeksu tidal flat site factsheet
South Korea Daebu-do island site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Namyang Bay site factsheet
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Suncheon Bay site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island site factsheet
South Korea Yubu-do island site factsheet
Spain Cádiz bay site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon site factsheet
Spain Ría de Arosa (O Grove) estuary site factsheet
Spain River Piedras marshes and Rompido sandbank site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Lundåkrabukten site factsheet
Tunisia Kneiss site factsheet
Turkey Ceyhan Delta site factsheet
Turkey Gediz Delta site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Khor Dubai site factsheet
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom Burry Inlet site factsheet
United Kingdom Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands site factsheet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours site factsheet
United Kingdom Dee Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Firth of Forth site factsheet
United Kingdom Gibraltar Point site factsheet
United Kingdom Humber Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Lewis Peatlands site factsheet
United Kingdom Lindisfarne site factsheet
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Mersey Narrows and North Wirral Foreshore site factsheet
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays site factsheet
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay site factsheet
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom North Uist Machair and Islands site factsheet
United Kingdom Peak District Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom Poole Harbour site factsheet
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour site factsheet
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Severn Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water site factsheet
United Kingdom South Pennine and Peak District Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom South Uist Machair and Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom The Swale site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom Yorkshire Dale Moorlands site factsheet
USA Copper River Delta site factsheet
USA Kvichak Bay site factsheet
USA Nelson Lagoon-Mud Bay site factsheet
USA Teshekpuk Lake and East Dease Inlet site factsheet
Vietnam Xuan Thuy site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Salt Exploitation Sites suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Othe
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance War, civil unrest & military exercises Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Othe
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Influenza Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Othe
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Calidris alpina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and allies)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,960,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species