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LC
Long-toed Stint Calidris subminuta

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Population justification
The global population is estimated to number > c.25,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while national population estimates include: c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in China; c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification
The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the extent of threats to the species.

Ecology
Behaviour This species is strongly migratory and travels largely overland on a broad front between its breeding and wintering grounds (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds from early-June to July in solitary pairs, usually well-dispersed but sometimes very close together within wetlands (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The departure from the breeding grounds starts in July and peaks between August and September, with the return northward migration peaking between April and May (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species is only mildly gregarious outside of the breeding season and usually forages singly or in small groups (del Hoyo et al. 1996) of 3-7 individuals although it rarely also occurs in flocks of between 15 and 50 individuals (Johnsgard 1981). Habitat Breeding The species breeds near pools (Johnsgard 1981) on open, grassy bogs or swamps (Johnsgard 1981, Flint et al. 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1996) or on mountain tundra (Flint et al. 1984) in boreal forest (taiga) (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996), showing a preference for areas with mosses, sedges and dwarf willows Salix spp. for nesting (Johnsgard 1981). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season the species occupies shallow inland wetlands (Johnsgard 1981, Higgins and Davies 1996, del Hoyo et al. 1996) and although it shows no preference over fresh, brackish or saline waters it does require habitats with soft, muddy shorelines and short grass (Johnsgard 1981, Higgins and Davies 1996), sedges, floating aquatic vegetation, reeds and rushes (Higgins and Davies 1996). Suitable habitats include the edges of permanent and temporary lakes (Johnsgard 1981, Higgins and Davies 1996), ponds, reservoirs (Higgins and Davies 1996), lagoons, swamps (Johnsgard 1981, Higgins and Davies 1996) and streams, river flood-plains (Higgins and Davies 1996), marshes (Johnsgard 1981), rice-fields (del Hoyo et al. 1996), sewage ponds, saltpans (Higgins and Davies 1996, del Hoyo et al. 1996) and saltmarshes (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species also less frequently occurs around tidal estuaries (Higgins and Davies 1996) on intertidal mudflats (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Its diet includes insects (e.g. carabid beetles), small gastropod molluscs, crustaceans (del Hoyo et al. 1996) amphibians (Johnsgard 1981) and seeds (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow depression (del Hoyo et al. 1996) on a hummock of sedge (Flint et al. 1984) well-hidden (del Hoyo et al. 1996) in areas with mosses, sedges and dwarf willows Salix spp. near pools (Johnsgard 1981) on open, grassy bogs or swamps (Johnsgard 1981, Flint et al. 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1996) or on mountain tundra (Flint et al. 1984) in boreal forest (taiga) (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species shows a high degree of nest site fidelity (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

References
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Flint, V. E.; Boehme, R. L.; Kostin, Y. V.; Kuznetsov, A. A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Higgins, P. J.; Davies, S. J. J. F. 1996. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds vol 3: snipe to pigeons. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Calidris subminuta. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Long-toed stint (Calidris subminuta)

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)
Species name author (Middendorff, 1853)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 316,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species