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LC
Temminck's Stint Calidris temminckii

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Population justification
The global population is estimated to number c.170,000-1,300,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while national population estimates include: c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification
The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the extent of threats to the species.

Ecology
Behaviour This species is a full migrant, migrating on a broad front (del Hoyo et al. 1996) overland across the full width of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (Snow and Perrins 1998). Adults leave their young in July before they are fully fledged and migrate south to the wintering grounds (Snow and Perrins 1998); juveniles then leave the breeding grounds in early-August (Snow and Perrins 1998). Some individuals also winter in Europe as far north as Britain (del Hoyo et al. 1996, del Hoyo et al. 1996), breeding between late-May and early-July on returning to the breeding range (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species feeds singly or in groups of up to 30 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and migrates singly or in small parties, although between 100 and 250 individuals have been encountered at some European staging sites (Snow and Perrins 1998). Habitat Breeding This species breeds in arctic tundra, shrub tundra and forest tundra along flood-plains (del Hoyo et al. 1996), although it avoids extremely cold conditions and exposed coasts (Snow and Perrins 1998). It is mainly found near coastal inlets, fjords, deltas, rivers or streams from sea level to 250 m, but also occurs up to 1,200 m inland (Snow and Perrins 1998) on flat, clear ground with little vegetation, areas covered with short grass and interspersed with patches of scrub (del Hoyo et al. 1996), areas with grasses, sedges or Empetrum, and scrub willow or birch thickets with sandy or gravelly stretches (Johnsgard 1981). Both dry and wet areas are used, but habitats with elevated locations such as boulders or buildings are preferred because of their use as song perches (Johnsgard 1981). In Scandinavia the species also breeds near fishing huts and houses, and in industrial workings (Ronka 1996). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season the species inhabits inland freshwater wetlands such as flood-lands, irrigated fields, sewage farms, densely vegetated wetlands (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), ditches, muddy marshes and lake edges (Urban et al. 1986), and on the coast shows a strong preference for mudflats in sheltered inlets, estuaries and saltmarshes, whilst tending to avoid open and sandy beaches (Snow and Perrins 1998). Diet On the breeding grounds and in inland habitats the diet of this species consists primarily of insects and their larvae (especially beetles and Diptera such as craneflies and midges) (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996), as well as the occasional plant matter (del Hoyo et al. 1996). On the coasts the species takes annelids, crustaceans (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (such as sand fleas) (Johnsgard 1981) and small molluscs (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow cup (Snow and Perrins 1998) on the ground in the open or amongst low vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), often at the base of small willows, junipers or other shrubs (Johnsgard 1981).

Threats
This species is threatened by nest predation (Koivula and Ronka 1998, Ronka et al. 2006) from Common Gull Larus canus and Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres (Ronka et al. 2006), as well as from Hooded Crow Corvus corone cornix, weasel Mustela nivalis, American mink Mustela vison and fox Vulpes vulpes in Finland (Ronka 1996). It is also threatened in its Scandinavian breeding range by shrinkage and deterioration of suitable habitats (due to eutrophication and the overgrazing of shore meadows), and by increased human recreational disturbance due to the building up of breeding sites (trampling and disturbance often lead to increased hatchling predation and abandonment of nests) (Ronka 1996). The species is also susceptible to avian influenza and may therefore be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus (Melville and Shortridge 2006).

References
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.

Koivula, K.; Ronka, A. 1998. Habitat deterioration and efficiiency of antipredator strategy in a meadow-breeding wader, Temminck's Stint (Calidris temminckii). Oecologia 116(3): 348-355.

Melville, D. S.; Shortridge, K. F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.

Ronka, A. 1996. Distribution, status and population trends in the Temminck's Stint Calidris temminckii in the Finnish Bothnian Bay. Ornis Fennica 73(1): 1-11.

Ronka, A.; Kiovula, K.; Ojenen, M.; Parkanen, V. M.; Pohjoismaki, M.; Rannikko, K.; Rauhula, P. 2006. Increased nest predation in a declining and threatened Temminck's Stint Calidris temminckii population. Ibis 148(1): 55-65.

Snow, D. W.; Perrins, C. M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic vol. 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 1986. The birds of Africa vol. II. Academic Press, London.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Calidris temminckii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Temminck's stint (Calidris temminckii) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)
Species name author (Leisler, 1812)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,450,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species