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LC
Little Stint Calidris minuta

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Population justification
The global population is estimated to number c.1,400,000-1,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification
The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Ecology
Behaviour This species is a full long-distance migrant that migrates overland on a broad front (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (or by utilising a great many routes) (Snow and Perrins 1998) across much of the Western Palearctic (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). It is also nomadic in parts of its wintering range (e.g. southern Africa), moving as habitats flood or are overgrown (Hockey et al. 2005). Autumn movements to wintering grounds occur between July and November; the return migration occurring mid-May to early-June (del Hoyo et al. 1996), with breeding occurring between late-June and early-July (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Many immatures also remain in the wintering grounds all year round (del Hoyo et al. 1996). This species is gregarious outside of the breeding season (Snow and Perrins 1998) and occurs in small groups in its winter range (Urban et al. 1986), often aggregating into larger flocks to roost at high tide or at night (Hockey et al. 2005). A typical migratory flock can be as large as 20-30 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding pairs sometimes nest as close as 5 pairs/ha, but more often they are dispersed (around 10 pairs/km2) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding During the breeding season this species inhabits low altitude tundra in the high Arctic (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (although it exceptionally occurs above 1,000 m in the west of its range) (Snow and Perrins 1998). It shows a preference for dry ground among dwarf willows near swampy areas or saltmarshes (del Hoyo et al. 1996), or areas where mosses and sedges are interspersed with hummocks covered by Empetrum (Johnsgard 1981). It avoids areas where annual rainfall exceeds 250 mm (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding On migration this species is found along the muddy edges of small inland lakes, reservoirs, sewage farms (Johnsgard 1981), riverbanks (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and seasonal pools (Snow and Perrins 1998), as well as on coastal mudflats and seashores (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996). In its winter range the species mainly inhabits coastal areas such as estuarine mudflats and sandflats (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hockey et al. 2005), enclosed lagoons, tidal creeks (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and saltpans (Urban et al. 1986), but it also occurs at inland freshwater wetlands such as open pools in marshes, paddyfields, jheels (and other small bodies of water covered with vegetation) (del Hoyo et al. 1996), small dams, floodwater margins and sandbanks along rinvers (Urban et al. 1986). Diet The diet of this species consists chiefly of invertebrates (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). Breeding During the breeding season larval and adult Diptera and small beetles are the primary foods (del Hoyo et al. 1996), particularly the larvae of mosquitoes and craneflies (Johnsgard 1981). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season the diet becomes more varied, with ants, Hymenoptera, waterbugs, annelids, small molluscs, crustaceans, freshwater mites and plant material being taken as well as Diptera and beetles (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow cup (Snow and Perrins 1998) on the ground in the open (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), sometimes covered with vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Threats
The species is threatened on the south-east coast of India (Point Calimere) by illegal hunting (bird trapping), reservoir and marshland habitat alteration by salt-industries, and habitat degradation by diminishing rainfall (changing the salt regime) (Balachandran 2006). It is threatened at Walvis Bay in Namibia, a key wetland site in southern Africa, by habitat degradation (e.g. through changes in the flood regime due to road building, and wetland reclamation for suburb and port development), and disturbance from tourism (Wearne and Underhill 2007). This species is also susceptible to avian malaria (Mendes et al. 2005) and avian botulism (Blaker 1967, van Heerden 1974), so may be threatened by future outbreaks of these diseases.

References
Balachandran, S. 2006. The decline in wader populations along the east coast of India with special reference to Point Calimere, south-east India. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 296-301. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.

Blaker, D. 1967. An outbreak of Botulinus poisoning among waterbirds. Ostrich 38(2): 144-147.

Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Hockey, P. A. R.; Dean, W. R. J.; Ryan, P. G. 2005. Roberts birds of southern Africa. Trustees of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town, South Africa.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.

Mendes, L.; Piersma, T.; Lecoq, M.; Spaans, B.; Ricklefs, E. 2005. Disease-limited distributions? Contrasts in the prevalence of avian malaria in shorebird species using marine and freshwater habitats. Oikos 109: 396-404.

Snow, D. W.; Perrins, C. M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic vol. 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 1986. The birds of Africa vol. II. Academic Press, London.

van Heerden, J. 1974. Botulism in the Orange Free State goldfields. Ostrich 45(3): 182-184.

Wearne, K.; Underhill, L. G. 2005. Walvis Bay, Namibia: a key wetland for waders and other coastal birds in southern Africa. Wader Study Group Bulletin 107: 24-30.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Calidris minuta. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Little stint (Calidris minuta) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)
Species name author (Leisler, 1812)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,740,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species