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Sanderling Calidris alba

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 1994. The taxonomy and species of birds of Australia and its territories. Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union, Melbourne.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

Population justification
The global population is estimated to number c.620,000-700,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while national population estimates include: c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification
The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are increasing, stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.

Ecology
Behaviour This species is a full long-distance migrant that travels mainly via offshore and coastal routes using a number of favoured stopover sites (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds from June to mid-July in solitary pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1996), departing the breeding grounds between mid-July and early-September (Hayman et al. 1986). The species usually occurs in small flocks on migration (Johnsgard 1981) although it may aggregate into larger flocks at stopover sites (Hayman et al. 1986), and in winter it forages in small to very large flocks (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding The species breeds in the high Arctic on barren, stony tundra with well-drained ridges (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996), gentle slopes or level alluvial plains supporting scattered vegetation of willow Salix spp., Dryas spp. and saxifrage Saxifraga spp. usually less than 200 m above sea-level (Johnsgard 1981). Non-breeding On passage the species may occur on inland freshwater or saline lakes (del Hoyo et al. 1996) but it is largely coastal during the winter, inhabiting open sandy beaches exposed to the sea, the outer reaches of estuaries, rocky and muddy shores, mudflats (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and coral reefs (Urban et al. 1986). Diet Breeding When breeding the species takes insects (especially adult and larval Diptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera) as well as spiders and crustaceans (del Hoyo et al. 1996). On arrival on the breeding grounds the species may also complement its diet with plant matter (e.g. seeds, saxifrage buds, moss and algae) (del Hoyo et al. 1996) before invertebrate prey becomes available (Johnsgard 1981). Non-breeding During the winter its diet consists of small molluscs, crustaceans, polychaete worms and adult, larval and pupal insects (e.g. Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera and Hymenoptera), as well as occasionally fish and carrion (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow depression on the bare earth (del Hoyo et al. 1996) of stony well-drained ridges, gentle slope or level alluvial plains (Johnsgard 1981).

Threats
The species is sensitive to disturbance on beaches (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (e.g. from recreational activities and free-running dogs (Thomas et al. 2003)), and is susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus (Melville and Shortridge 2006). In the Chinese, North Korean and South Korean regions of the Yellow Sea (East Asian flyway route) this species is threatened by the degradation and loss of wetland habitats through environmental pollution, reduced river flows and human disturbance (Kelin and Qiang 2006).

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Hayman, P.; Marchant, J.; Prater, A. J. 1986. Shorebirds. Croom Helm, London.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.

Kelin, C.; Qiang, X. 2006. Conserving migratory shorebirds in the Yellow Sea region. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 319. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK.

Melville, D. S.; Shortridge, K. F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.

Thomas, K.; Kvitek, R. G.; Bretz, C. 2003. Effects of human activity on the foraging behavior of sanderlings Calidris alba. Biological Conservation 109: 67-71.

Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 1986. The birds of Africa vol. II. Academic Press, London.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Calidris alba. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Sanderling (Calidris alba) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and allies)
Species name author (Pallas, 1764)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,260,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species