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Red Knot Calidris canutus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 142.48 g


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 4,310,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.8 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.1,100,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while national population estimates include: < c.10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.1,000 individuals on migration in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and > c.10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Albania Vagrant Extant        
Algeria Native Extant        
Angola Native Extant        
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant        
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant        
Argentina Native Extant        
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Australia Native Extant        
Austria Native Extant        
Azerbaijan Vagrant Extant        
Bahamas Native Extant        
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Barbados Native Extant        
Belarus Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Belgium Native Extant   Yes    
Belize Native Extant   Yes    
Benin Native Extant        
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant        
Bolivia Native Extant        
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Botswana Vagrant Extant        
Brazil Native Extant        
Brunei Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes    
Cameroon Native Extant        
Canada Native Extant     Yes  
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant        
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Chile Native Extant   Yes    
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Colombia Native Extant        
Congo Native Extant        
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes    
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Vagrant Extant        
Cuba Native Extant        
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Cyprus Vagrant Extant        
Czech Republic Native Extant        
Denmark Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Dominica Native Extant        
Dominican Republic Native Extant        
Ecuador Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
El Salvador Native Extant        
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant   Yes    
Estonia Native Extant   Yes    
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Vagrant Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant        
Fiji Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Finland Native Extant     Yes  
France Native Extant   Yes Yes  
French Guiana Native Extant        
French Southern Territories Vagrant Extant        
Gabon Native Extant        
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Vagrant Extant        
Germany Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes      
Grenada Native Extant        
Guadeloupe (to France) Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Guam (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
Guatemala Native Extant        
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Guyana Native Extant        
Haiti Native Extant        
Honduras Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant        
Iceland Native Extant   Yes Yes  
India Native Extant        
Indonesia Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Iraq Vagrant Extant        
Ireland Native Extant   Yes    
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant   Yes    
Jamaica Vagrant Extant        
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Vagrant Extant        
Kazakhstan Vagrant Extant        
Kenya Vagrant Extant        
Kuwait Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Latvia Native Extant        
Lebanon Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Liberia Native Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Malaysia Native Extant        
Mali Vagrant Extant        
Malta Vagrant Extant        
Martinique (to France) Native Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Mongolia Vagrant Extant        
Montenegro Vagrant Extant        
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant        
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Vagrant Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant        
Nepal Vagrant Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes Yes  
New Zealand Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Norway Native Extant     Yes  
Oman Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palau Vagrant Extant        
Panama Native Extant        
Papua New Guinea Native Extant        
Paraguay Native Extant        
Peru Native Extant        
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant     Yes  
Portugal Native Extant   Yes    
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Romania Vagrant Extant        
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant     Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant        
Saudi Arabia Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Vagrant Extant        
Seychelles Native Extant        
Sierra Leone Native Extant        
Singapore Native Extant        
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant        
Slovenia Vagrant Extant        
Somalia Vagrant Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Native Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
Spain Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Sri Lanka Native Extant        
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant        
St Lucia Native Extant        
St Martin (to France) Vagrant Extant     Yes  
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant     Yes  
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant        
Sudan Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Suriname Native Extant        
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Native Extant Yes      
Sweden Native Extant     Yes  
Switzerland Native Extant        
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Timor-Leste Vagrant Extant        
Togo Native Extant        
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes  
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Uruguay Native Extant   Yes    
USA Native Extant Yes      
Venezuela Native Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant        
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Vagrant Extant   Yes Yes  
Zambia Vagrant Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Argentina Bahía de Samborombón y Punta Rasa site factsheet
Argentina Reserva Costa Atlántica de Tierra del Fuego y zonas adyacentes site factsheet
Argentina San Antonio Oeste site factsheet
Argentina Sistema Península de Valdés site factsheet
Australia Eighty Mile Beach site factsheet
Brazil Baixada Maranhense site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe site factsheet
Brazil Reentrâncias Maranhenses / Paraenses site factsheet
Canada Batture Batture aux Alouettes and mouth of Saguenay River site factsheet
Chile Bahía Lomas site factsheet
Chile Bahía Lomas site factsheet
Chile Marisma Buque Quemado site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
Costa Rica Nicoya Gulf mangroves and coastal areas site factsheet
Denmark Fanø site factsheet
Denmark Mandø site factsheet
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø site factsheet
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea) site factsheet
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes site factsheet
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin site factsheet
France Estuaire de la Charente site factsheet
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy site factsheet
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie site factsheet
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant site factsheet
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon site factsheet
France Pointe de Grave site factsheet
French Guiana Amana site factsheet
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland site factsheet
Greenland (to Denmark) South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Ilha de Bolama - Rio Grande de Buba site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo site factsheet
Iceland Álftafjördur-Hofsstadavogur site factsheet
Iceland Álftanes-Akrar site factsheet
Iceland Breidafjördur site factsheet
Iceland Hvalfjardareyri-Laxárvogur site factsheet
Iceland Innstavogsnes-Grunnafjördur site factsheet
Iceland Löngufjörur site factsheet
Iceland Melrakkaslétta site factsheet
Iceland Skerjafjördur site factsheet
Iceland Stokkseyri-Eyrarbakki site factsheet
Ireland Boyne estuary site factsheet
Ireland Castlemaine Harbour site factsheet
Ireland Dublin Bay site factsheet
Ireland Dundalk Bay site factsheet
Ireland Dungarvan Harbour site factsheet
Ireland Killala Bay site factsheet
Ireland Malahide/ Broadmeadow Estuary site factsheet
Ireland Nanny estuary and shoreline site factsheet
Ireland Rogerstown estuary site factsheet
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries site factsheet
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs site factsheet
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast site factsheet
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park site factsheet
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla site factsheet
Netherlands Ameland: Duinen-Oerd site factsheet
Netherlands Balgzand site factsheet
Netherlands Griend site factsheet
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast site factsheet
Netherlands Oosterschelde site factsheet
Netherlands Rottumerplaat site factsheet
Netherlands Schiermonnikoog site factsheet
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat site factsheet
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg site factsheet
Netherlands Vlieland site factsheet
Netherlands Wadden Sea site factsheet
Netherlands Westerschelde and Saeftinghe site factsheet
Norway Balsfjord site factsheet
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord site factsheet
Norway Lille Porsangen site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kunashir island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Ola lagoon site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays site factsheet
Sierra Leone Yawri Bay site factsheet
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordenskiöldkysten site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Sassen-Bünsow Land site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) South Spitsbergen National Park site factsheet
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom Dee Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Firth of Forth site factsheet
United Kingdom Gibraltar Point site factsheet
United Kingdom Humber Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Lindisfarne site factsheet
United Kingdom Mersey Narrows and North Wirral Foreshore site factsheet
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Montrose Basin site factsheet
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays site factsheet
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays site factsheet
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay site factsheet
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands site factsheet
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom The Swale site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes site factsheet
Uruguay Barra del Chuy - La Coronilla site factsheet
USA Cape Hatteras National Seashore site factsheet
USA Cape Lookout National Seashore site factsheet
USA Delaware Bayshore Region site factsheet
USA Delaware Coastal Zone site factsheet
Venezuela Refugio de Fauna Silvestre y Reserva de Pesca Ciénaga de Los Olivitos site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Calidris canutus. Downloaded from on 28/08/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/08/2015.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,600,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change
- 2015 European Red List assessment