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VU
Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A4bcd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2010 Vulnerable
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,490,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,090,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.4 - - -
Population justification: The global population has been estimated to number c.380,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006). Following the reclamation of the tidal flats at Saemanguem, c.90,000 non-breeding individuals disappeared from the area. Surveys elsewhere in South Korea confirmed they had not been displaced, and a decline of the same magnitude and timing in Australia suggests that individuals previously using Saemanguem have died (D. Rogers in litt. 2009). Therefore a global population of c.290,000 individuals is estimated, though given documented declines elsewhere the true figure is likely to be lower. National population estimates include: < c.10,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and > c.10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: Reclamation of Saemangeum alone has caused a decline of c.90,000 individuals, equating to a population decline of approximately 25% since 2000 (N. Moores in litt. 2009; D. Rogers in litt. 2009). Furthermore there have been documented declines in some of the peripheral sites for the species in Australia and Japan (Amano 2006; R. Clemens in litt. 2010). Given that reclamation in the Yellow Sea is not restricted to Saemangeum and many more reclamation projects are proposed within the region, it is reasonable to assume that declines will continue in the future, hence a precautionary decline of 30-49% over 22 years (three generations) is estimated.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Australia Native Extant   Yes    
Bahrain Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Bangladesh Native Extant   Yes    
Brunei Native Extant   Yes    
China (mainland) Native Extant   Yes    
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
Djibouti Vagrant Extant        
Germany Vagrant Extant        
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant     Yes  
India Native Extant   Yes    
Indonesia Native Extant   Yes    
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Vagrant Extant        
Japan Native Extant     Yes  
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes    
Malaysia Native Extant   Yes    
Mauritius Vagrant Extant        
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes    
Morocco Vagrant Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant   Yes    
Netherlands Vagrant Extant        
New Caledonia (to France) Vagrant Extant        
New Zealand Vagrant Extant        
North Korea Native Extant     Yes  
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Oman Native Extant   Yes    
Pakistan Native Extant   Yes    
Palau Native Extant   Yes    
Papua New Guinea Native Extant   Yes    
Philippines Native Extant   Yes    
Qatar Vagrant Extant        
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes  
Seychelles Vagrant Extant        
Singapore Native Extant   Yes    
South Korea Native Extant     Yes  
Spain Vagrant Extant        
Sri Lanka Native Extant   Yes    
Taiwan (China) Native Extant     Yes  
Thailand Native Extant        
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
USA Vagrant Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant     Yes  
Yemen Vagrant Extant     Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Australia Anson Bay, Daly and Reynolds River Floodplains site factsheet
Australia Arafura Swamp site factsheet
Australia Cadell and Blyth Floodplains site factsheet
Australia Eighty Mile Beach site factsheet
Australia Fog Bay and Finniss River Floodplains site factsheet
Australia Great Sandy Strait site factsheet
Australia Gulf Plains site factsheet
Australia Limmen Bight site factsheet
Australia Milingimbi Islands site factsheet
Australia Moreton Bay and Pumicestone Passage site factsheet
Australia Repulse Bay to Ince Bay site factsheet
Australia Roebuck Bay site factsheet
Australia Shoal Bay (Darwin) site factsheet
Australia Tiwi Islands site factsheet
Bangladesh Sonadia Island site factsheet
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Lianyungang saltworks site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Taizhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Xuanmen Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Yong Jiang Estuary site factsheet
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast site factsheet
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama site factsheet
Oman Barr al Hikman site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Babushkina bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Khayryuzova bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Ola lagoon site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Rekinninskaya bay site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay site factsheet
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake) site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Namyang Bay site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island site factsheet
South Korea Yubu-do island site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Khor al Beideh site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subarctic suitable breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Altitude 300 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (commercial use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Calidris tenuirostris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)
Species name author (Horsfield, 1821)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,490,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species