This species is classified as Near Threatened because, although it is quite widespread, it has a moderately small population overall and this is thought to be in decline, owing primarily to destruction of its wintering grounds (BirdLife International 2001). An even more rapid population decline may take place in the future owing to climate change.
Distribution and populationLimnodromus semipalmatus
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 1994. The taxonomy and species of birds of Australia and its territories. Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union, Melbourne.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
has a disjunct breeding range in the steppe regions that extend from west to east Siberia, Russia
, and south into Mongolia
and Heilongjiang in north-east China
. It has been recorded as a non-breeding visitor to Japan
, North Korea
, South Korea
, mainland China, Hong Kong
(China), Taiwan (China)
, Sri Lanka
, Papua New Guinea
and New Zealand
. The population size is estimated at 23,000 individuals (Bamford et al
. in prep)
. It is dependent on a rather small number of wetlands, notably the wintering sites at the Banyuasin Delta on Sumatra, where up to 13,000 were estimated in 1988 (BirdLife International 2001), and Ujung Pangkah in east Java. Population justification
The global population is estimated to number c.23,000 individuals (Bamford et al. in prep
), while national population sizes have been estimated at < c.100 breeding pairs and < c.10,000 individuals on migration in China and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).Trend justification
There are no data on population trends; however, the species is probably in decline owing to pollution and development on the wintering grounds. In the future, these declines may be intensified by habitat shifts on the breeding grounds, caused by global warming.EcologyBehaviour
This species is migratory but its movements are not well known (del Hoyo et al.
. It breeds in small colonies of 6-20 pairs often with White-winged Terns Chlidonias leucopterus
, and although the timing and location of breeding varies considerably depending on water levels, most females lay between late-May and early-June (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al.
1996). Neighbouring nests are spaced 4-350 m apart (del Hoyo et al.
1996). Birds arrive in the wintering grounds in September (del Hoyo et al.
1996), returning usually in April (del Hoyo et al.
1996), although some small groups remain in the wintering range during the boreal summer (del Hoyo et al.
1996). It is a gregarious species, that occurs in small flocks during migration
(Johnsgard 1981). At other times it occurs in pairs or small groups, with larger flocks of over 100 individuals roosting or feeding together at favoured sites (del Hoyo et al.
. Habitat Breeding
It breeds in extensive freshwater wetlands in the steppe and forest steppe zones. Suitable habitats include lake shores, river deltas, flooded meadows and grassy bogs along rivers with short grass and sedge vegetation (del Hoyo et al.
1996), and areas of bare mud
(Johnsgard 1981). It is also found on the boggy shores of alkaline ponds
has been observed in rice fields (del Hoyo et al.
During the non-breeding season it occurs in sheltered coastal environments, primarily estuarine and intertidal mudflats, lagoons, creeks and saltworks (del Hoyo et al.
1996). It will also roost on sandy beaches or in shallow lagoons during this season (del Hoyo et al.
1996). Diet Breeding
On the breeding grounds its diet consists of small fish, insect larvae and oligochaetes (del Hoyo et al.
On migration and in its wintering range, it feeds on polychaetes, insect larvae and molluscs (del Hoyo et al.
1996). Breeding site
The nests of one colony were reported to be sited either on mounds among reeds in shallow water, or in the open, in hollows almost devoid of cover
(Johnsgard 1981). On bare ground the nest is a shallow depression lined with grass (del Hoyo et al.
. Those found over water are created from grass stalks and dead leaves
(Johnsgard 1981). They are sometimes found up to 8-12 cm above water that is 25 cm deep (del Hoyo et al.
It may be particularly vulnerable to habitat loss in its breeding grounds as a result of the drainage of wetlands for agriculture, or their drying-out as a result of climate change (del Hoyo et al.
. It may also be vulnerable to hunting, pollution and other pressures on both the breeding and wintering grounds. Wetland loss and degradation along its migration route is a potential threat, especially in the Yellow Sea where c.40% stage during northward migration (Barter 2002). Conservation actions underway
CMS Appendix II.The species is included in the action plan for Australian Birds 2010 (Garnett et al.
2011).Conservation actions proposed
Conduct surveys to improve knowledge of breeding and wintering grounds. Regularly monitor the population at important sites on both the breeding and wintering grounds. Oppose developments that threaten key wintering sites.
Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Bamford, M.J.; Watkins, D. G.; Bancroft, W.; Tischler, G.; Wahl. J. in prep. Migratory shorebirds of the East Asian-Australasian flyway: population estimates and important sites. Wetlands International.
Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).
View photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Butchart, S., Derhé, M., Mahood, S.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Limnodromus semipalmatus. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2013.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000)
Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004)
Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species