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Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,620,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 10,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.3 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.460,000-800,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while national population estimates include: c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006), and in North America the trend is increasing (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes  
Albania Native Extant        
Algeria Native Extant        
American Samoa Native Extant        
Angola Native Extant        
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant        
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant        
Argentina Native Extant        
Armenia Native Extant        
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Australia Native Extant        
Austria Native Extant        
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bahamas Native Extant        
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Barbados Native Extant        
Belarus Vagrant Extant        
Belgium Native Extant   Yes    
Belize Native Extant   Yes    
Benin Native Extant        
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant        
Bolivia Native Extant        
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Botswana Native Extant        
Brazil Native Extant        
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant        
Brunei Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes    
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Burundi Native Extant        
Cambodia Native Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Canada Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Cape Verde Native Extant        
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
Chile Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Christmas Island (to Australia) Native Extant        
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) Native Extant        
Colombia Native Extant        
Comoros Native Extant        
Congo Native Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant        
Cook Islands Native Extant        
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes    
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant        
Cuba Native Extant        
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant        
Denmark Native Extant     Yes Yes
Djibouti Native Extant        
Dominica Native Extant        
Dominican Republic Native Extant        
Ecuador Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
El Salvador Native Extant        
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant       Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant   Yes    
Fiji Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes  
France Native Extant   Yes Yes  
French Guiana Native Extant        
French Polynesia Native Extant        
French Southern Territories Native Extant        
Gabon Native Extant        
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant        
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes      
Grenada Native Extant        
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant   Yes    
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Guatemala Native Extant        
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Guyana Native Extant        
Haiti Native Extant        
Honduras Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant        
Iceland Native Extant   Yes Yes  
India Native Extant        
Indonesia Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Ireland Native Extant   Yes    
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant   Yes    
Jamaica Native Extant   Yes    
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Native Extant     Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant        
Kenya Native Extant        
Kiribati Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant        
Latvia Native Extant   Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes  
Lesotho Vagrant Extant        
Liberia Native Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Vagrant Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant        
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Madagascar Native Extant        
Malawi Native Extant        
Malaysia Native Extant        
Maldives Native Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Marshall Islands Native Extant   Yes    
Martinique (to France) Native Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Mauritius Native Extant        
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes    
Mongolia Native Extant        
Montenegro Native Extant        
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant        
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant        
Nauru Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes    
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant        
New Zealand Native Extant        
Nicaragua Native Extant        
Niger Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
Niue (to New Zealand) Native Extant        
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Native Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palau Native Extant   Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Panama Native Extant        
Papua New Guinea Native Extant        
Paraguay Vagrant Extant        
Peru Native Extant        
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant        
Portugal Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Réunion (to France) Native Extant        
Romania Native Extant        
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Rwanda Vagrant Extant        
Samoa Native Extant        
São Tomé e Príncipe Native Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant        
Seychelles Native Extant        
Sierra Leone Native Extant        
Singapore Native Extant        
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant        
Slovenia Vagrant Extant        
Solomon Islands Native Extant        
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Native Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant   Yes    
Sri Lanka Native Extant        
St Helena (to UK) Native Extant        
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant        
St Lucia Native Extant        
St Martin (to France) Native Extant   Yes    
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant   Yes Yes  
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant        
Sudan Native Extant        
Suriname Native Extant        
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Native Extant Yes      
Swaziland Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Native Extant Yes      
Switzerland Native Extant        
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Togo Native Extant        
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Native Extant        
Tonga Native Extant        
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant   Yes    
Turkey Native Extant   Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant        
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Tuvalu Native Extant        
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes  
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Uruguay Native Extant   Yes    
USA Native Extant Yes      
Uzbekistan Native Extant        
Vanuatu Native Extant        
Venezuela Native Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant        
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Zambia Native Extant        
Zimbabwe Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Canada Foxe Basin Islands site factsheet
Costa Rica Nicoya Gulf mangroves and coastal areas site factsheet
Costa Rica Sierpe Wetlands and Osa Peninsula site factsheet
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré site factsheet
France Baie de Goulven site factsheet
France Baie de Quiberon site factsheet
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec site factsheet
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise site factsheet
French Guiana Ile de Cayenne site factsheet
French Guiana Littoral site factsheet
French Guiana Littoral Kourou site factsheet
French Guiana Littoral Macouria site factsheet
French Guiana Littoral Sinnamary site factsheet
French Guiana Plaine Kaw et Pointe Béhague site factsheet
Gambia Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Ilha de Bolama - Rio Grande de Buba site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo site factsheet
Iceland Álftanes-Akrar site factsheet
Iceland Melrakkaslétta site factsheet
Iceland Skerjafjördur site factsheet
Iceland Stafnes-Gardur site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan site factsheet
Ireland Mid Clare Coast including Mutton and Mattle Islands site factsheet
Japan Awase tidal flat site factsheet
Japan Ikawazu tidal flat site factsheet
Japan Inner Tokyo bay site factsheet
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou site factsheet
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou site factsheet
Japan Shiokawa tidal flat site factsheet
Japan Yaeyama islands site factsheet
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast site factsheet
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park site factsheet
Mauritania Cap Blanc site factsheet
Morocco Dakhla area site factsheet
Morocco Région Jorf Lasfar site factsheet
Namibia 30-Kilometre Beach: Walvis - Swakopmund site factsheet
Namibia Sandwich Harbour site factsheet
Namibia Walvis Bay site factsheet
Netherlands Balgzand site factsheet
Netherlands Oosterschelde site factsheet
Netherlands Wadden Sea site factsheet
Oman Barr al Hikman site factsheet
Oman Masirah island site factsheet
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon) site factsheet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Jobos Bay site factsheet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Suroeste site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay site factsheet
Senegal Delta du Saloum site factsheet
Senegal Joal-Fadiouth site factsheet
Seychelles Aldabra atoll site factsheet
Seychelles Cosmoledo atoll site factsheet
South Africa Dassen Island site factsheet
South Africa Swartkops Estuary - Redhouse and Chatty Saltpans site factsheet
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
Sweden Coastal areas of eastern Gotland island site factsheet
Sweden Holmöarna archipelago site factsheet
Sweden Outer Stockholm archipelago site factsheet
Tunisia Kneiss site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
United Kingdom East Sanday site factsheet
United Kingdom Firth of Forth site factsheet
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline site factsheet
United Kingdom Isles of Scilly site factsheet
United Kingdom Jersey Shoreline site factsheet
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay site factsheet
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Outer Ards site factsheet
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom South Down Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom South Uist Machair and Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll site factsheet
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast site factsheet
USA Delaware Bayshore Region site factsheet
USA Delaware Coastal Zone site factsheet
USA Northwestern Hawaiian Islands site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Arenaria interpres. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,620,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species