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Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,640,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,640,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.160,000-1,200,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes  
Angola Native Extant        
Argentina Vagrant Extant        
Armenia Native Extant        
Australia Native Extant        
Austria Native Extant     Yes  
Azerbaijan Native Extant     Yes  
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Botswana Vagrant Extant        
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant        
Brunei Native Extant        
Bulgaria Vagrant Extant        
Burundi Vagrant Extant        
Cambodia Native Extant        
Cameroon Vagrant Extant        
Canada Vagrant Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Christmas Island (to Australia) Vagrant Extant        
Comoros Native Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Vagrant Extant        
Cyprus Vagrant Extant        
Czech Republic Vagrant Extant        
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
Djibouti Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant        
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Fiji Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Finland Native Extant Yes      
France Vagrant Extant        
Gabon Vagrant Extant        
Gambia Vagrant Extant        
Georgia Native Extant        
Germany Vagrant Extant        
Ghana Vagrant Extant        
Greece Vagrant Extant        
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant   Yes    
Hungary Vagrant Extant        
India Native Extant        
Indonesia Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Iraq Native Extant     Yes  
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant        
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Vagrant Extant        
Kazakhstan Native Extant        
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant        
Laos Native Extant        
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Libya Vagrant Extant        
Lithuania Vagrant Extant        
Madagascar Native Extant        
Malawi Native Extant        
Malaysia Native Extant   Yes    
Maldives Vagrant Extant        
Mali Vagrant Extant        
Malta Vagrant Extant        
Mauritania Vagrant Extant        
Mauritius Vagrant Extant        
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant        
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes    
Moldova Native Extant        
Mongolia Native Extant        
Morocco Vagrant Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant        
Nepal Vagrant Extant        
Netherlands Vagrant Extant        
New Caledonia (to France) Vagrant Extant        
New Zealand Native Extant        
Nigeria Vagrant Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palau Native Extant   Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Papua New Guinea Native Extant        
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Vagrant Extant        
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Réunion (to France) Vagrant Extant        
Romania Vagrant Extant        
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Rwanda Vagrant Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Seychelles Native Extant        
Singapore Native Extant        
Slovakia Vagrant Extant        
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Vagrant Extant        
Sri Lanka Native Extant        
Sudan Native Extant        
Swaziland Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Vagrant Extant        
Switzerland Vagrant Extant        
Syria Native Extant     Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Togo Native Extant        
Trinidad and Tobago Vagrant Extant        
Tunisia Vagrant Extant        
Turkey Native Extant        
Turkmenistan Native Extant        
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes  
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
USA Native Extant   Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Zambia Native Extant        
Zimbabwe Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Australia Eighty Mile Beach site factsheet
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir) site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area site factsheet
Indonesia Pesisir Pantai Jambi site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits site factsheet
Japan Fujimae tidal flat site factsheet
Japan Hakata bay site factsheet
Japan Kumakawa estuary site factsheet
Japan Nakatsu and Usa tidal flats site factsheet
Japan Shirakawa estuary site factsheet
Madagascar Wetlands of the Tsiribihina delta and upper Tsiribihina river site factsheet
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast site factsheet
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park site factsheet
Oman Barr al Hikman site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay site factsheet
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake) site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Hampyeong Bay site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Muan tidal flat site factsheet
South Korea Namyang Bay site factsheet
South Korea Suncheon Bay site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island site factsheet
Tanzania Mafia Island site factsheet
Tanzania Rufiji Delta site factsheet
Tanzania Zanzibar Island-South Coast site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Al Jazirah Khor site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Salt Exploitation Sites suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subarctic suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable passage
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable passage
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Xenus cinereus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)
Species name author (Güldenstädt, 1775)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,640,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species