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Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,640,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,640,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.160,000-1,200,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes
Angola Native Extant      
Argentina Vagrant Extant      
Armenia Native Extant      
Australia Native Extant      
Austria Native Extant     Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant     Yes
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Belarus Native Extant Yes    
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Botswana Vagrant Extant      
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant      
Brunei Native Extant      
Bulgaria Vagrant Extant      
Burundi Vagrant Extant      
Cambodia Native Extant      
Cameroon Vagrant Extant      
Canada Vagrant Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Christmas Island (to Australia) Vagrant Extant      
Comoros Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Vagrant Extant      
Cyprus Vagrant Extant      
Czech Republic Vagrant Extant      
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Djibouti Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant      
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Fiji Native Extant   Yes Yes
Finland Native Extant Yes    
France Vagrant Extant      
Gabon Vagrant Extant      
Gambia Vagrant Extant      
Georgia Native Extant      
Germany Vagrant Extant      
Ghana Vagrant Extant      
Greece Vagrant Extant      
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant   Yes  
Hungary Vagrant Extant      
India Native Extant      
Indonesia Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes
Ireland Vagrant Extant      
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Native Extant      
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Vagrant Extant      
Kazakhstan Native Extant      
Kenya Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant      
Laos Native Extant      
Latvia Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Vagrant Extant     Yes
Libya Vagrant Extant      
Lithuania Vagrant Extant      
Madagascar Native Extant      
Malawi Native Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant   Yes  
Maldives Vagrant Extant      
Mali Vagrant Extant      
Malta Vagrant Extant      
Mauritania Vagrant Extant      
Mauritius Vagrant Extant      
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes  
Moldova Native Extant      
Mongolia Native Extant      
Morocco Vagrant Extant      
Mozambique Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
Nepal Vagrant Extant      
Netherlands Vagrant Extant      
New Caledonia (to France) Vagrant Extant      
New Zealand Native Extant      
Nigeria Vagrant Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palau Native Extant   Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Vagrant Extant     Yes
Papua New Guinea Native Extant      
Philippines Native Extant      
Poland Vagrant Extant      
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes
Réunion (to France) Vagrant Extant      
Romania Vagrant Extant      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Rwanda Vagrant Extant      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Seychelles Native Extant      
Singapore Native Extant      
Slovakia Vagrant Extant      
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Vagrant Extant      
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Swaziland Vagrant Extant      
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Switzerland Vagrant Extant      
Syria Native Extant     Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant      
Tanzania Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes Yes
Togo Native Extant      
Trinidad and Tobago Vagrant Extant      
Tunisia Vagrant Extant      
Turkey Native Extant      
Turkmenistan Native Extant      
Uganda Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant      
USA Native Extant   Yes  
Uzbekistan Native Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes
Zambia Native Extant      
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Australia Eighty Mile Beach site factsheet
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir) site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area site factsheet
Indonesia Pesisir Pantai Jambi site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits site factsheet
Japan Fujimae tidal flat site factsheet
Japan Hakata bay site factsheet
Japan Kumakawa estuary site factsheet
Japan Nakatsu and Usa tidal flats site factsheet
Japan Shirakawa estuary site factsheet
Madagascar Wetlands of the Tsiribihina delta and upper Tsiribihina river site factsheet
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast site factsheet
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park site factsheet
Oman Barr al Hikman site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay site factsheet
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake) site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Hampyeong Bay site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Muan tidal flat site factsheet
South Korea Namyang Bay site factsheet
South Korea Suncheon Bay site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island site factsheet
Tanzania Mafia Island site factsheet
Tanzania Rufiji Delta site factsheet
Tanzania Zanzibar Island-South Coast site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Al Jazirah Khor site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Salt Exploitation Sites suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subarctic suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable passage
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable passage
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Xenus cinereus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and allies)
Species name author (G
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,640,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species