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Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 15,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 29,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.2 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.3,100,000-3,600,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while national population estimates include: c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs, >c.10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs and >c.1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes
Albania Native Extant      
Algeria Native Extant      
Angola Native Extant      
Antigua and Barbuda Vagrant Extant      
Armenia Native Extant      
Australia Native Extant      
Austria Native Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Barbados Vagrant Extant      
Belarus Native Extant Yes    
Belgium Native Extant      
Benin Native Extant      
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant     Yes
Bhutan Native Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant      
Botswana Native Extant      
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant      
Brunei Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant      
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Burundi Native Extant      
Cambodia Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Canada Native Extant      
Cape Verde Native Extant      
Central African Republic Native Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Christmas Island (to Australia) Native Extant      
Comoros Vagrant Extant      
Congo Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Costa Rica Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant     Yes
Cyprus Native Extant     Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant      
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes
Djibouti Native Extant      
Dominica Vagrant Extant      
Ecuador Vagrant Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant Yes   Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes
France Native Extant   Yes Yes
Gabon Native Extant      
Gambia Native Extant      
Georgia Native Extant      
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes
Ghana Native Extant      
Greece Native Extant     Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) Vagrant Extant      
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Guatemala Vagrant Extant      
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Honduras Vagrant Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant      
Iceland Native Extant Yes    
India Native Extant      
Indonesia Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes
Ireland Native Extant   Yes  
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Native Extant     Yes
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Native Extant     Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant      
Kenya Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant      
Laos Native Extant      
Latvia Native Extant Yes   Yes
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes
Lesotho Native Extant      
Liberia Native Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Vagrant Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant Yes    
Luxembourg Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant      
Madagascar Native Extant      
Malawi Native Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant      
Maldives Native Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Malta Native Extant      
Marshall Islands Native Extant   Yes  
Martinique (to France) Vagrant Extant      
Mauritania Native Extant      
Mauritius Vagrant Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes  
Moldova Native Extant      
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant      
Montserrat (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Mozambique Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Nicaragua Vagrant Extant      
Niger Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Native Extant Yes   Yes
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palau Native Extant   Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes
Papua New Guinea Native Extant      
Philippines Native Extant      
Poland Native Extant Yes   Yes
Portugal Native Extant   Yes  
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes
Romania Native Extant     Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant      
Rwanda Native Extant      
São Tomé e Príncipe Native Extant      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant      
Seychelles Native Extant      
Sierra Leone Native Extant      
Singapore Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant      
Slovenia Native Extant     Yes
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Native Extant   Yes  
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
St Kitts and Nevis Vagrant Extant      
St Lucia Vagrant Extant      
St Vincent and the Grenadines Vagrant Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Swaziland Native Extant      
Sweden Native Extant Yes   Yes
Switzerland Native Extant      
Syria Native Extant     Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant      
Tanzania Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes Yes
Togo Native Extant      
Trinidad and Tobago Vagrant Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant   Yes  
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Uganda Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant Yes    
USA Native Extant Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant      
Western Sahara Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes
Zambia Native Extant      
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Denmark Ålvand Klithede and Førby Sø site factsheet
Denmark Borris Hede site factsheet
Denmark Hanstholm Reservation site factsheet
Denmark Kongens Mose and Draved Skov site factsheet
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma site factsheet
Estonia Nätsi-Võlla site factsheet
Estonia Sirtsi site factsheet
Estonia Soomaa site factsheet
Estonia Tuhu-Kesu site factsheet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests site factsheet
Finland Kevo site factsheet
Finland Kilsiaapa-Ristivuoma site factsheet
Finland Lämsänaapa-Sakkala-aapa site factsheet
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires site factsheet
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju site factsheet
Finland Litokaira site factsheet
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat site factsheet
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara site factsheet
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo site factsheet
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi site factsheet
Finland Oulu region wetlands site factsheet
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds site factsheet
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira site factsheet
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area site factsheet
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet site factsheet
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira site factsheet
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi site factsheet
Finland Veittiaapa-Ristiaapa site factsheet
Greece Divari Pilou lagoon (Gialova) site factsheet
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains site factsheet
Latvia Cena bog site factsheet
Latvia Kemeri national park site factsheet
Latvia Lielais and Pemmas bogs site factsheet
Latvia Orlovas bog site factsheet
Latvia Stikli site factsheet
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs site factsheet
Latvia Ziemelu bogs site factsheet
Lithuania Aukstasis Tyras Telmological Reserve site factsheet
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve site factsheet
Lithuania Kamanos Strict NR site factsheet
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania Musos tyrelis raised bog with surrounding forest site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania Reiskiai Telmological Reserve site factsheet
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti site factsheet
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor site factsheet
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood site factsheet
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Homoroadelor site factsheet
Romania Iazurile de pe Văile Ibănesei - Başeului - Podrigăi site factsheet
Romania Lacurile Fălticeni site factsheet
Romania Maglavit site factsheet
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds site factsheet
Romania Suhaia site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Forty islands site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (European) Koporski Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
Slovenia Lake Cerknica site factsheet
Slovenia River Drava site factsheet
South Korea Cheonsu Bay site factsheet
Sweden Dumme mosse site factsheet
Sweden Färnebofjärden site factsheet
Sweden Florarna site factsheet
Sweden Komosse site factsheet
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken site factsheet
Sweden Lake Tjålmejaure-Laisdalen valley site factsheet
Sweden Middagsfjället - Dörrshöjden site factsheet
Sweden Påkketan site factsheet
Sweden River Umeälven delta site factsheet
Sweden Stornäset - Hörningsholm site factsheet
Sweden Taavavuoma site factsheet
Uganda Doho Rice Scheme site factsheet
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest site factsheet
United Kingdom Achanalt Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands site factsheet
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subarctic suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Botulism (Clostridium botulinum) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Malaria (Plasmodium relictum) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Tringa glareola. Downloaded from on 21/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 21/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and allies)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 15,500,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species