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Bay-vented Cotinga Doliornis sclateri

Justification
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it is believed to have a small population, which is declining as a result of continuing degradation and loss of its habitat.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Ampelion sclateri Stotz et al. (1996)

Identification
21.5 cm. Large, dark cotinga. Males have black crown and nape (with partially concealed red crests), and are dark brown above and paler brown below, with rufous undertail coverts and grey throat and sides of head and neck. Female similar, but lacks black crown. Similar spp. The only high elevation cotinga with rufous undertail coverts and pale irides, features which separate it from D. remseni.

Distribution and population
Doliornis sclateri occurs locally on the east slope of the Andes in Peru at: Puerta del Monte (San Martín); Huicungo (3 localities, San Martín); near Tayabamba (La Libertad); near Buldiboyo (La Libertad); the Carpish Mountains (7 localities; Huánuco); Pozuco-Chaglla trail (2 localities, Pasco); and Maraynioc (Junín) (Jiguet et al. 2010). It may also occur in suitable intervening areas, but grazing and fire management may have rendered these unsuitable (G. Engblom in litt. 2003). It is apparently very rare within its habitat in Peru (G. Engblom in litt. 2003), but Doliornis cotingas are renowned for being difficult to detect, because they are relatively inactive and have soft, easily overlooked calls.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
A moderate and on-going population decline is suspected based on rates of habitat loss and degradation.

Ecology
Its principal habitat is the páramo/cloud-forest ecotone at 2,600-3,800 m (Schulenberg et al. 2007). Complex unburnt, treeline habitat seems to be favoured, but is now rare, occurring only as small islands at most localities. Stomach content analysis has revealed a diet of fruit, berries, seeds and some invertebrate matter (Snow 1982). It remains poorly known ecologically, but it is likely that its requirements are similar to its congeners.

Threats
The páramo/cloud-forest ecotone habitat favoured by this species has been seriously reduced and degraded throughout its range, owing to the use of fire to maintain pastureland. Sadly, pre-Columbian sustainable land use systems were largely replaced with unsustainable agricultural techniques during the colonial period (Kessler and Herzog 1998). Such land management practices occur even inside protected areas in the region. Habitat losses in some areas have been estimated at 50% within the last 25 years (G. Engblom in litt. 2003).

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in Abiseo National Park, although there has been a serious loss of habitat at this site owing to the invasion of high altitude habitats by cattle. Deliberately started fires also still occur, but they have become less frequent in recent years (G. Engblom in litt. 2003). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to clarify its status, distribution and annual ecological requirements. Improve land-use management by segregating agricultural, grazing and forest areas (G. Engblom in litt. 2003). Regulate the use of fire (G. Engblom in litt. 2003). Reintroduce old, high-yielding agricultural techniques (G. Engblom in litt. 2003). Educate and encourage local people to take a leading role in land-use management and restoration schemes (G. Engblom in litt. 2003).

References
Jiguet, F.; Barbet-Massin, M.; Henry, P.-Y. 2010. Predicting potential distributions of two rare allopatric sister species, the globally threatened Doliornis cotingas in the Andes. Journal of Field Ornithology 81: 325-339.

Kessler, M.; Herzog, S. K. 1998. Conservation status in Bolivia of timberline habitats, elfin forest and their birds. Cotinga 10: 50-54.

Renjifo, L. M.; Franco-Maya, A. M.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Kattan, G. H.; López-Lans, B. 2002. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogot, Colombia.

Schulenberg, T. S.; Stotz, D. F. ; Lane, D. F.; O'Neill, J. P.; Parker III, T. A. 2007. Birds of Peru. Prnceton University Press, Prnceton, NJ, USA.

Snow, D. 1982. The cotingas: bellbirds, umbrellabirds and their allies. British Museum (Natural History) and Oxford University Press, London and Oxford.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Engblom, G., Henry, P.Y.H.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Doliornis sclateri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Bay-vented cotinga (Doliornis sclateri) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Cotingidae (Cotingas)
Species name author (Taczanowski, 1874)
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 13,100 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species