This species is listed as Vulnerable as it is undergoing a rapid population decline which is suspected to have been primarily driven by habitat loss and deterioration. Further proposed reclamation projects are predicted to cause additional declines in the future.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 1994. The taxonomy and species of birds of Australia and its territories. Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union, Melbourne.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
63 cm. Largest wader in New Zealand. Greyish brown and buff streaked body; very long downcurved bill (19 cm). Similar spp. Distinguished from other similar species by large size and very long bill. Hints: . Voice Flight call 'croo-lee'.
Related state of the world's birds case studies
Amano, H. 2006. Status of migratory waterbirds inhabiting tidal flats in Japan. Chikyu Kankyo 11(2): 215-226.
Bamford, M.; Watkins, D.; Bancroft, W.; Tischler, G.; Wahl, J. 2008. Migratory shorebirds of the East Asian-Australasian flyway: population estimates and internationally important sites. Wetlands International - Oceania, Canberra.
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Garnett, S.T., Szabo, J.K. and Dutson, G. 2011. The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
Gosbell, K .and Clemens, R. 2006. Population monitoring in Australia: some insights after 25 years and future directions. Stilt 50: 162-175.
Moores, N. 2006. South Korea's shorebirds: a review of abundance, distribution, threats and conservation status. Stilt 50: 62-72.
Reid, T.; Park, P. 2003. Continuing decline of Eastern Curlew, Numenius madagascariensis, in Tasmania. Emu 103: 279-283.
Rogers, D. I. 2006. Hidden Costs: Challenges faced by Migratory Shorebirds living on Intertidal Flats. Charles Sturt University.
van de Kam, J., Battley, P. F., McCaffery, B. J., Rogers, D. I., Hong, J-S., Moores, N., Ki, J-Y., Lewis, J., Piersma, T. 2010. Invisible Connections: Why migrating shorebirds need the Yellow Sea. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
Wetland International - China Office. 2006. Relict Gull surveys in Hongjianao, Shaanxi Province. Newsletter of China Ornithological Society 15(2): 29.
Wilson, H.B., Kendall, B.E., Fuller, R.A., Milton, D.A. & Posingham, H.P. 2011. Analyzing variability and the rate of decline of migratory shorebirds in Moreton Bay, Australia. Conservation Biology 25: 758-766.
Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001), together with new information collated since the publication of the Red Data Book
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Derhé, M., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M.
Amano, H., Moores, N., Rogers, D., Crockford, N.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Numenius madagascariensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/04/2014.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Vulnerable|
|Family||Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and allies)|
|Species name author||(Linnaeus, 1766)|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||727,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|