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NT
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6,800,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2004
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.77,000-1,065,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006 and Barter in litt. 2007), while national population estimates include: < c.10,000 individuals on migration and >c.10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: Data from 2007 return estimated three-generation declines of 26.1-34.1%. However, owing to the uncertainty over whether declines in southern populations have been compensated for by increases in northern populations, the global trend is suspected to fall within the band 20-30% in the past 15 years (three generations).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes  
Albania Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Algeria Native Extant        
Andorra Unknown Extant     Yes  
Angola Native Extant        
Armenia Native Extant        
Austria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bahamas Vagrant Extant        
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant   Yes    
Belarus Native Extant     Yes Yes
Belgium Native Extant     Yes Yes
Benin Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Bhutan Native Extant     Yes  
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant        
Botswana Native Extant        
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant        
Brunei Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes    
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Burundi Native Extant   Yes    
Cambodia Native Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Canada Vagrant Extant        
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant        
Central African Republic Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Chad Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Comoros Native Extant        
Congo Native Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant   Yes    
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant     Yes Yes
Djibouti Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant Yes      
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant       Yes
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes  
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gabon Native Extant        
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant        
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant        
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant     Yes Yes
Iceland Native Extant       Yes
India Native Extant        
Indonesia Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Iraq Native Extant   Yes    
Ireland Native Extant       Yes
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant       Yes
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Native Extant     Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant     Yes  
Laos Native Extant        
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Lesotho Vagrant Extant        
Liberia Native Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant Yes      
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Native Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Madagascar Native Extant        
Malawi Native Extant        
Malaysia Native Extant   Yes    
Maldives Native Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Mauritius Native Extant        
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant       Yes
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant   Yes    
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
Niger Native Extant   Yes    
Nigeria Native Extant        
Niue (to New Zealand) Vagrant Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes    
Philippines Native Extant   Yes    
Poland Native Extant     Yes Yes
Portugal Native Extant   Yes    
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Réunion (to France) Native Extant        
Romania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes Yes
Rwanda Native Extant   Yes    
São Tomé e Príncipe Vagrant Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant       Yes
Seychelles Native Extant        
Sierra Leone Native Extant        
Singapore Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
Spain Native Extant     Yes Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant        
Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Native Extant     Yes Yes
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Togo Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant   Yes    
Turkey Native Extant   Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant        
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant     Yes Yes
USA Vagrant Extant        
Uzbekistan Native Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant   Yes    
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Zambia Native Extant        
Zimbabwe Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Austria Ibmer Moor site factsheet
Austria Machland site factsheet
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria site factsheet
Bangladesh Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta site factsheet
Belarus Braslav lakes site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Wenzhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary site factsheet
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs site factsheet
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes site factsheet
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton site factsheet
France Baie de Vilaine site factsheet
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin site factsheet
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes site factsheet
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin site factsheet
France Cap Gris-nez site factsheet
France Domaine d'Orx site factsheet
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie site factsheet
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie site factsheet
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Jagin and Rud-i-Gabrik deltas site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Iraq Khawr Abdallah site factsheet
Ireland Ballymacoda site factsheet
Ireland Blackwater estuary site factsheet
Ireland Cork Harbour site factsheet
Ireland Dublin Bay site factsheet
Ireland Dundalk Bay site factsheet
Ireland Inner Clonakilty Bay site factsheet
Ireland Lough Foyle site factsheet
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake site factsheet
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries site factsheet
Ireland Tacumshin lake site factsheet
Ireland The Cull and Killag site factsheet
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs site factsheet
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands site factsheet
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon site factsheet
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf site factsheet
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon site factsheet
Italy Venice lagoon site factsheet
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kuwait Sulaibikhat Bay site factsheet
Malaysia Matang coast site factsheet
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast site factsheet
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast site factsheet
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park site factsheet
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama site factsheet
Netherlands Ameland: Duinen-Oerd site factsheet
Netherlands Balgzand site factsheet
Netherlands Engelsmanplaat site factsheet
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast site factsheet
Netherlands Griend site factsheet
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast site factsheet
Netherlands Oosterschelde site factsheet
Netherlands Rottumeroog site factsheet
Netherlands Rottumerplaat site factsheet
Netherlands Schiermonnikoog site factsheet
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat site factsheet
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg site factsheet
Netherlands Vlieland site factsheet
Netherlands Wadden Sea site factsheet
Netherlands Westerschelde and Saeftinghe site factsheet
Oman Barr al Hikman site factsheet
Oman Masirah island site factsheet
Philippines Olango Island site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Delta of the Swina river site factsheet
Poland Kurpie Site site factsheet
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Notec River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Warta River Valley site factsheet
Poland Miedwie site site factsheet
Poland Mietkow reservoir site factsheet
Poland Ner River Valley site factsheet
Poland Nida Rivar Valley site factsheet
Poland Notec river flood-plain site factsheet
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys site factsheet
Poland Otmuchów reservoir site factsheet
Poland Pulwy Marshes site factsheet
Poland Rakutowskie swamps site factsheet
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site site factsheet
Poland Vistula river mouth site factsheet
Poland Warta River Mouth site factsheet
Poland Wizna Swamps site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Barluksko-Sayanskaya floodplain of Oka river and Kuitunskaya foreststeppe site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers site factsheet
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Polisto-Lovatskaya mire system site factsheet
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay site factsheet
Slovenia Črete site factsheet
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor site factsheet
Slovenia Škocjan Bay site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Namyang Bay site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island site factsheet
South Korea Yubu-do island site factsheet
Spain Cádiz bay site factsheet
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares site factsheet
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary site factsheet
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon site factsheet
Spain Santoña marshes site factsheet
Tunisia Kneiss site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Khor al Beideh site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Khor Dubai site factsheet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours site factsheet
United Kingdom Dee Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Firth of Forth site factsheet
United Kingdom Hamford Water site factsheet
United Kingdom Humber Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Inner Clyde site factsheet
United Kingdom Lindisfarne site factsheet
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle site factsheet
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays site factsheet
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays site factsheet
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay site factsheet
United Kingdom North Mainland Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom Poole Harbour site factsheet
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Scapa Flow site factsheet
United Kingdom Severn Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water site factsheet
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands site factsheet
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom The Swale site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay site factsheet
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes site factsheet
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake site factsheet
Vietnam Dat Mui site factsheet
Vietnam Xuan Thuy site factsheet
Yemen Midi - Al-Luhayyah site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Influenza Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (domestic use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Numenius arquata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,800,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species