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NT
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6,800,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2004
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.77,000-1,065,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006 and Barter in litt. 2007), while national population estimates include: < c.10,000 individuals on migration and >c.10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: Data from 2007 return estimated three-generation declines of 26.1-34.1%. However, owing to the uncertainty over whether declines in southern populations have been compensated for by increases in northern populations, the global trend is suspected to fall within the band 20-30% in the past 15 years (three generations).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes
Albania Native Extant   Yes Yes
Algeria Native Extant      
Andorra Unknown Extant     Yes
Angola Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant      
Austria Native Extant     Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Bahamas Vagrant Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant   Yes  
Belarus Native Extant     Yes
Belgium Native Extant     Yes
Benin Native Extant   Yes Yes
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Bhutan Native Extant     Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant      
Botswana Native Extant      
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant      
Brunei Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes  
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Burundi Native Extant   Yes  
Cambodia Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Canada Vagrant Extant      
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant      
Central African Republic Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Chad Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Comoros Native Extant      
Congo Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant   Yes  
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant      
Denmark Native Extant     Yes
Djibouti Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant   Yes Yes
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant Yes    
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant      
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes
France Native Extant     Yes
Gabon Native Extant      
Gambia Native Extant      
Georgia Native Extant      
Germany Native Extant     Yes
Ghana Native Extant      
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant      
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant     Yes
Iceland Native Extant      
India Native Extant      
Indonesia Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes  
Ireland Native Extant      
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Native Extant      
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Native Extant     Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant     Yes
Laos Native Extant      
Latvia Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes
Lesotho Vagrant Extant      
Liberia Native Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant Yes    
Lithuania Native Extant Yes    
Luxembourg Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Madagascar Native Extant      
Malawi Native Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant   Yes  
Maldives Native Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Malta Native Extant      
Mauritania Native Extant      
Mauritius Native Extant      
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant      
Moldova Native Extant Yes   Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Mozambique Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant   Yes  
Nepal Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant      
Niger Native Extant   Yes  
Nigeria Native Extant      
Niue (to New Zealand) Vagrant Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Native Extant Yes   Yes
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes  
Philippines Native Extant   Yes  
Poland Native Extant     Yes
Portugal Native Extant   Yes  
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes
Réunion (to France) Native Extant      
Romania Native Extant     Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes
Rwanda Native Extant   Yes  
São Tomé e Príncipe Vagrant Extant      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant      
Seychelles Native Extant      
Sierra Leone Native Extant      
Singapore Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant      
Slovenia Native Extant      
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant      
Spain Native Extant     Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant      
Sweden Native Extant     Yes
Switzerland Native Extant      
Syria Native Extant   Yes Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant      
Tanzania Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Togo Native Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant   Yes  
Turkey Native Extant   Yes  
Turkmenistan Native Extant      
Uganda Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant     Yes
USA Vagrant Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant   Yes  
Western Sahara Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes
Zambia Native Extant      
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Austria Ibmer Moor site factsheet
Austria Machland site factsheet
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria site factsheet
Bangladesh Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta site factsheet
Belarus Braslav lakes site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Wenzhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary site factsheet
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs site factsheet
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes site factsheet
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton site factsheet
France Baie de Vilaine site factsheet
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin site factsheet
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes site factsheet
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin site factsheet
France Cap Gris-nez site factsheet
France Domaine d'Orx site factsheet
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie site factsheet
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie site factsheet
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Jagin and Rud-i-Gabrik deltas site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Iraq Khawr Abdallah site factsheet
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kuwait Sulaibikhat Bay site factsheet
Malaysia Matang coast site factsheet
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast site factsheet
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast site factsheet
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park site factsheet
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama site factsheet
Netherlands Ameland: Duinen-Oerd site factsheet
Netherlands Balgzand site factsheet
Netherlands Engelsmanplaat site factsheet
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast site factsheet
Netherlands Griend site factsheet
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast site factsheet
Netherlands Oosterschelde site factsheet
Netherlands Rottumeroog site factsheet
Netherlands Rottumerplaat site factsheet
Netherlands Schiermonnikoog site factsheet
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat site factsheet
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg site factsheet
Netherlands Vlieland site factsheet
Netherlands Wadden Sea site factsheet
Netherlands Westerschelde and Saeftinghe site factsheet
Oman Barr al Hikman site factsheet
Oman Masirah island site factsheet
Philippines Olango Island site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Delta of the Swina river site factsheet
Poland Kurpie Site site factsheet
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Notec River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Warta River Valley site factsheet
Poland Miedwie site site factsheet
Poland Mietkow reservoir site factsheet
Poland Ner River Valley site factsheet
Poland Nida Rivar Valley site factsheet
Poland Notec river flood-plain site factsheet
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys site factsheet
Poland Otmuchów reservoir site factsheet
Poland Pulwy Marshes site factsheet
Poland Rakutowskie swamps site factsheet
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site site factsheet
Poland Vistula river mouth site factsheet
Poland Warta River Mouth site factsheet
Poland Wizna Swamps site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Barluksko-Sayanskaya floodplain of Oka river and Kuitunskaya foreststeppe site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers site factsheet
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Polisto-Lovatskaya mire system site factsheet
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay site factsheet
Slovenia Črete site factsheet
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor site factsheet
Slovenia Škocjan Bay site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Namyang Bay site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island site factsheet
South Korea Yubu-do island site factsheet
Spain Cádiz bay site factsheet
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares site factsheet
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary site factsheet
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon site factsheet
Spain Santoña marshes site factsheet
Tunisia Kneiss site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Khor al Beideh site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Khor Dubai site factsheet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours site factsheet
United Kingdom Dee Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Firth of Forth site factsheet
United Kingdom Hamford Water site factsheet
United Kingdom Humber Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Inner Clyde site factsheet
United Kingdom Lindisfarne site factsheet
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle site factsheet
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays site factsheet
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays site factsheet
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay site factsheet
United Kingdom North Mainland Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom Poole Harbour site factsheet
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Scapa Flow site factsheet
United Kingdom Severn Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water site factsheet
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands site factsheet
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom The Swale site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay site factsheet
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes site factsheet
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake site factsheet
Vietnam Dat Mui site factsheet
Vietnam Xuan Thuy site factsheet
Yemen Midi - Al-Luhayyah site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Influenza Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (domestic use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Numenius arquata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and allies)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,800,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species