This widespread species remains common in many parts of its range, and determining population trends is problematic. Nevertheless, declines have been recorded in several key populations and overall a moderately rapid global decline is estimated. As a result, the species has been uplisted to Near Threatened.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Distribution and populationNumenius arquata
55cm. Large wader with long down-curved bill. Mottled or streaked brown plumage with whiter belly and undertail. In flight show pointed whitish rump and barred tail as well as mottled whitish underwings. Outer primaries contrastingly dark and flight slow and gull-like. Similar spp. European race of N.phaeopus similar but with shorter bill and dark crown side and eye-stripe. N.tahitiensis, N.americanus and N.madagascariensis also similar but dark rumps and underwings.
is widely distributed, breeding across Europe from the British Isles, through north-western Europe and Scandinavia into Russia
extending east into Siberia, east of Lake Baikal. It winters around the coasts of north-west Europe, the Mediterranean, Africa, the Middle East, the Indian Subcontinent, South-East Asia, Japan
and the Sundas. It has a large global population estimated to number 765,000-1,065,000 individuals (M. Barter in litt
. 2007; Wetlands International 2006). The breeding population in Western Europe (220,000-360,000 pairs) has declined in recent years, with a 53% decline in the United Kingdom
calculated over the period 1970-2005 from the Common Birds Census and the Breeding Bird Survey, and a 37% decline over the period 1994-2006 derived from the Breeding Bird Survey (Eaton et al
R. Gregory in litt.
. A decline of 86% was calculated in Ireland
between 1988-1991 and 2003 (Gibbons et al
. 1993; Hillis 2003)
and declines have been recorded in Finland
(BirdLife International 2004)
(Hötker et al
(20-30% per decade) (L. Raudonikis in litt
and the Netherlands
(31% since 1984 (A. J. van Djik in litt
). Unquantified, but potentially highly significant, declines have also been recorded in the central Asian populations of N. a. orientalis
(J. Kamp and S. Sklyarenko in litt
. In Denmark
(K. N. Flensted in litt
. 2007; Meltofte et al.
and eastern Siberia (I. Fefelov in litt
breeding populations are apparently stable and apparent increases in wintering populations in the Wadden Sea (Laursen and Karsten 2005; Meltofte et al.
, on the Adriatic coast (Gusson et al
, in East Asia (M. Barter in litt
and in Western Europe suggest that breeding populations, probably in European Russia and northern Siberia have perhaps increased. Overall, analysis of the compiled trend data indicate three generation (15 year) estimate of decline of between 26% and 34%
BirdLife International 2004; Hillis 2003;
A. J. van Djik in litt
. 2007; M. Barter in litt
. 2007; Wetlands International 2006; Thorup 2006; A. Copland in litt
. 2007; M. Boschert in litt
. 2007; Eaton et al
R. Gregory in litt.
2007). Owing to the uncertainty over whether declines in southern populations have been compensated by increases in northern populations, the global trend is suspected to fall within the band 20-30% declines in the past 15 years or three generations. Population justification
The global population is estimated to number c.77,000-1,065,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006 and Barter in litt.
2007), while national population estimates include: < c.10,000 individuals on migration and >c.10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).Trend justification
Data from 2007 return estimated three-generation declines of 26.1-34.1%. However, owing to the uncertainty over whether declines in southern populations have been compensated for by increases in northern populations, the global trend is suspected to fall within the band 20-30% in the past 15 years (three generations).EcologyBehaviour
Most populations of this species are fully migratory (del Hoyo et al.
1996) and breed from April to August
(Hayman et al.
in solitary territorial pairs (Johnsgard 1981)
, occasionally also forming small colonies (Flint et al.
. After breeding adults gather on coasts (from July onwards)
(Hayman et al.
for the post-breeding moult (Snow and Perrins 1998)
before migrating south to the wintering grounds between July and November (del Hoyo et al.
1996). The species departs its wintering grounds again from February through to May, although non-breeders may remain in the wintering areas all-year-round (del Hoyo et al.
. During the winter the species usually forages singly or in small groups (del Hoyo et al.
occasionally aggregating into flocks of several thousand individuals, especially at roosting sites (Snow and Perrins 1998)
. Habitat Breeding
The species breeds on upland moors, peat bogs, swampy and dry heathlands, fens, open grassy or boggy areas in forests, damp grasslands, meadows (del Hoyo et al.
, non-intensive farmland in river valleys
(Hayman et al.
, dune valleys and coastal marshlands (del Hoyo et al.
During the winter the species frequents muddy coasts, bays and estuaries (del Hoyo et al.
with tidal mudflats and sandflats (Snow and Perrins 1998), rocky and sandy beaches with many pools (Johnsgard 1981;
Snow and Perrins 1998), mangroves, saltmarshes (Snow and Perrins 1998), coastal meadows (Johnsgard 1981) and muddy shores of coastal lagoons (Johnsgard 1981), inland lakes and rivers (del Hoyo et al.
. It also utilises wet grassland and arable fields during migration (del Hoyo et al.
Its diet consists chiefly of annelid worms and terrestrial insects (del Hoyo et al.
1996) (e.g. Coleoptera and Orthoptera) (Johnsgard 1981) especially during the summer (del Hoyo et al.
1996), although it will also take crustaceans, molluscs, polychaete worms (del Hoyo et al.
, spiders (Johnsgard 1981)
, berries and seeds, as well as occasionally small fish, amphibians, lizards, young birds and small rodents (del Hoyo et al.
. Breeding site
The nest is a shallow depression on the ground or on a mound (Flint et al.
in the open or in the cover of grass or sedge (del Hoyo et al.
often far from water (Johnsgard 1981). Management information
A study into the effects of shellfish harvesting by hand in coastal intertidal habitats recommends that the harvesting load should be limited to -1 during this species's autumn migration (Navedo and Masero 2007)
The species is threatened by the loss and fragmentation of moorland habitats as a result of afforestation (del Hoyo et al.
1996; Johnsgard 1981)
and of marginal grassland habitats as a result of agricultural intensification and improvement (del Hoyo et al.
1996; Johnsgard 1981;
Baines 1988) (e.g. drainage, inorganic fertilisation and reseeding) (Baines 1988)
. The species also suffers from high egg and chick mortalities (due to mechanical mowing) and higher predation rates if nesting on improved grasslands (del Hoyo et al.
. Conversely populations in the central Asians steppes have declined following abandonment of farmland and subsequent increases in the height of vegetation, rendering large areas unsuitable for nesting. It has also suffered population declines as a result of hunting (Johnsgard 1981)
, and is susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus (Melville and Shortridge 2006)
Wintering populations are threatened by disturbance on intertidal mudflats (del Hoyo et al.
1996; Burton et al.
(e.g. from construction work (Burton et al.
and foot-traffic (Burton et al.
), development on high-tide roosting sites, pollution (del Hoyo et al.
1996) and the flooding of estuarine mudflats and saltmarshes as a result of tidal barrage construction (Burton 2006)
. The species is also threatened by the degradation of migrational staging areas owing to land reclamation, pollution, human disturbance and reduced river flows (Kelin and Qiang 2006)
. Local populations of this species have also declined owing to hunting pressures (del Hoyo et al.
. Conservation actions underway
Annex II/2 of the EU Birds Directive. A management plan for the species, updated for 2007-2009, was published in 2007, covering the EU portion of the species's range (Jensen and Lutz 2007). A 5 year moratorium on hunting the species was implemented in France in July 2008 (A. Duncan in litt
. 2008). The species occurs in a large number of protected areas throughout its range and features in several national monitoring schemes. Conservation actions proposed
The Management Plan for Curlew outlines key conservation targets: Protect key wintering sites. Determine the key parameters driving declines in breeding areas and integrate agri-environment measures to counter these. Continue monitoring trends. Minimise disturbance on the wintering grounds.
Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.
Flint, V. E.; Boehme, R. L.; Kostin, Y. V.; Kuznetsov, A. A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Hayman, P.; Marchant, J.; Prater, A. J. 1986. Shorebirds. Croom Helm, London.
Baines, D. 1988. The effects of improvement of upland grassland on the distribution and density of breeding wading birds (Charadriiformes) in northern England. Biological Conservation 45: 221-236.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Snow, D. W.; Perrins, C. M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic vol. 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Thorup, O. 2006. Breeding waders in Europe 2000. International Wader Study Group, Thetford, U.K.
Wetland International - China Office. 2006. Relict Gull surveys in Hongjianao, Shaanxi Province. Newsletter of China Ornithological Society 15(2): 29.
Eaton, M. A.; Austin, G. E.; Banks, A. N.; Conway, G.; Douse, A.; Grice, P. V.; Hearn, R. D.; Hilton, G. M.; Hoccom, D.; Musgrove, A. J.; Noble, D. G. N Ratcliffe, N; Rehrisch, M. M; Worden, J.; Wotton, S. 2007. The state of the UK's birds 2006.
Burton, N. H. K. 2006. The impact of the Cardiff Bay barrage on wintering waterbirds. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), aterbirds around the world, pp. 805. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Kelin, C.; Qiang, X. 2006. Conserving migratory shorebirds in the Yellow Sea region. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 319. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Melville, D. S.; Shortridge, K. F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Burton, N. H. K.; Rehfisch, M. M.; Clark, N. A. 2002. Impacts of Disturbance from Construction Work on the Densities and Feeding Behavior of Waterbirds using the Intertidal Mudflats of Cardiff Bay, UK. Environmental Management 30(6): 865-871.
Burton, N. H. K.; Armitage, M. J. S.; Musgrove, A. J.; Rehfisch, M. M. 2002. Impacts of Man-Made landscape Features on Numbers of Estuarine Waterbirds at Low Tide. Environmental Management 30(6): 857-864.
Navedo, J. G.; Masero, J. A. 2007. Measuring potential negative effects of traditional harvesting practices on waterbirds: a case study with migrating curlews. Animal Conservation 10: 88-94.
Gibbons, D.W., Reid, J.B. and Chapman, R.A. 1993. Poyser, London, UK.
Hillis, J.P. 2003. Rare Irish breeding birds, 1992-2001. Irish Birds 7(2): 157-172.
Hötker, H., Jeromin, H. and Melter, J. 2007. Entwicklung der Brutbestände der Wiesen-Limikolen in Deutschland - Ergebnisse eines neuen Ansatzes im Monitoring mittelhäufiger Brutvogelarten. Vogelwelt 128: 49-65.
Laursen, K. 2005. Curlews in the Wadden Sea - effects of shooting protection in Denmark. Wadden Sea Ecosystem 20: 173-183.
Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)
Hear sounds for this species from xeno-canto, the community database of shared bird sounds from around the world.
View photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection
Text account compilers
Bird, J., Butchart, S., Derhé, M., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M., Malpas, L.
Barter, M., Boschert, M., Bragin, E., Chan, S., Copland, A., Fefelov, I., Flensted, K., Kamp, J., Mischenko, A., Raudonikis, L., Sklyarenko, S., van Dijk, A.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Numenius arquata. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 18/06/2013.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 18/06/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000)
Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004)
Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species