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CR(PE)
Eskimo Curlew Numenius borealis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered
Endangered
Vulnerable D1 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1-49 medium Estimated 2000
Population trend Unknown -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.1 - - -
Population justification: Any remaining population is assumed to be tiny (numbering fewer than 50 individuals and mature individuals), as there have been no confirmed sightings since the early 1980s.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Argentina Native Possibly Extinct   Yes    
Barbados Native Extinct   Yes Yes  
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extinct        
Bolivia Vagrant Possibly Extinct        
Brazil Native Possibly Extinct   Yes Yes  
Canada Native Possibly Extinct Yes      
Chile Native Possibly Extinct   Yes    
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Vagrant Extinct        
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extinct        
Grenada Vagrant Extinct        
Guadeloupe (to France) Vagrant Extinct        
Guatemala Vagrant Extinct        
Iceland Vagrant Extinct        
Ireland Vagrant Extinct        
Mexico Native Extinct     Yes  
Paraguay Native Possibly Extinct   Yes    
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vagrant Extinct        
Russia (Asian) Vagrant Extinct        
St Vincent and the Grenadines Vagrant Extinct        
Trinidad and Tobago Vagrant Possibly Extinct        
United Kingdom Vagrant Extinct        
Uruguay Native Extinct   Yes    
USA Native Possibly Extinct     Yes  
Virgin Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extinct        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Canada Anderson River Delta site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Altitude 0 - 350 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Unknown Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Historical
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Historical

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Numenius borealis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered - Possibly Extinct
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)
Species name author (Forster, 1772)
Population size 1-49 mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species