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Cinnabar Boobook Ninox ios
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Assessment of the status of this species is hampered by its considerable obscurity. Given its apparent rarity and the continuing loss and degradation of forest habitat on Sulawesi, it seems reasonable to surmise that its population is small and declining, qualifying it as Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Rasmussen, P. C. 1999. A new species of Hawk-owl (Ninox) from North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Wilson Bulletin 111: 457-464.

Taxonomic note
Described as new to science by Rasmussen (1999).

c.22 cm. Small, brightly coloured hawk-owl. Uniform rufous-chestnut but for whitish scapular spots, whitish feather shafts on underparts, indistinct darker scalloping to lower underparts, and narrow, darker bars on retrices. Lacks any facial patterning. Similar spp. Speckled Hawk-owl N. punctulata, Brown Hawk-owl N. scutulata and Ochre-bellied Hawk-owl N. ochracea are larger with more prominently patterned faces. N. punctulata is spotted white on upperparts and barred white on underparts, N. ochracea and N. scutulata are dark brown, the former with paler yellow-ochre lower underparts, the latter with brown-streaked white underparts.

Distribution and population
Ninox ios is apparently restricted to the highlands of Sulawesi, Indonesia (BirdLife International 2001), where there have been at least five documented records since the collection of the type specimen in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park in 1985, including four records from Gunung Ambang Strict Nature Reserve and one record from Lore Lindu National Park (Central Sulawesi) (Mauro 2001, King 2005, Hutchinson et al. 2006). The record from Lore Lindu National Park greatly extends its known range.

Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
Deforestation has occurred at lower elevations within the species's range. This on-going threat suggests that its population is declining, although the rate of decline is suspected to be moderate owing to limited impacts on montane forests.

The six known records (including that of the type specimen) are from forest between 1,120 m and 1,700 m, and it is assumed that the species is sympatric with, but probably at higher elevations than, the Ochre-bellied Hawk-owl N. ochracea (Hutchinson et al. 2006). Observations and comparison with owlet-nightjars (Aegothelidae) suggests that the species feeds predominantly on flying insects by conducting short sallies from exposed branches (Hutchinson et al. 2006).

Forest at middle elevations on Sulawesi is relatively intact at present. However, deforestation is having a major impact in many areas, and until it is demonstrated that the species occurs more widely than its current three localities, it is precautionary to regard it as at risk simply on the basis of its potentially restricted population. The drivers behind on-going deforestation are thought to be rural development and encroachment of settlements, agricultural expansion and logging pressure. Oil palm plantations are a major cause of deforestation in many parts of Indonesia. As a species of montane areas, it is potentially at risk from the effects of projected climate change on the distribution and extent of its habitats.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. The species occurs within three protected areas: Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park, Gunung Ambang Strict Nature Reserve and Lore Lindu National Park. Conservation Actions Proposed
Establish the calling periods of this species as a prerequisite to full surveys using playback, by which its true status and needs can be determined. Provide full support for the management and protection of protected areas where it is known to occur. Assess the threats to higher elevation forest on Sulawesi and take appropriate actions to conserve these areas.

Benstead, P.; Benstead, C.; Hayman, P. submitted. Some interesting bird records from the Sulawesi sub-region. Kukila.

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Hutchinson, R.; Eaton, J.; Benstead, P. 2006. Observations of Cinnabar Hawk Owl Ninox ios in Gunung Ambang Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, with a description of a secondary vocalisation. Forktail 22: 120-121.

Mauro, I. 2001. Cinnabar Hawk Owl Ninox ios at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, in December 1998. Forktail 17: 118-119.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Allinson, T, Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Ninox ios. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Cinnabar boobook (Ninox ios) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Strigidae (Typical Owls)
Species name author Rasmussen, 1999
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,700 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species