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Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,180,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 16,200,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good Estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.6 - - -
Population justification: The population is estimated to number 162,000-183,000 in Western Europe; 90,000-165,000 in eastern Europe; 25,000-100,000 in west-central Asia; 150,000 in central Asia and Siberia (Asian Waterbird Census unpublished data); 160,000 in the rest of Asia and Australia, and 47,000 (subspecies islandica) in the Faroe Islands and Iceland.
Trend justification: There is still some degree of uncertainty about the size and trend of some of the sub-populations. Nevertheless, looking at 'best' and 'worse' case scenarios, the available information suggests that the global population has probably declined by between 14% and 33% over the past 15 years (=3 generations). Assuming that the 'actual' trend lies somewhere between these extremes, it seems likely that the global population may have declined by c.25% since 1990. Thus the species's trend is currently best placed in the 20-29% band. This information is provided by I. Burfield in litt (2005), with reference to a spreadsheet of detailed calculations based on best-worse case scenarios using population estimates from Wetlands International (2006), and trend data from Birds in Europe 2, the Asian Water bird Census, Wetlands International and forum contributors. In Europe, trends since 1990 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes  
Albania Native Extant   Yes  
Algeria Native Extant      
Andorra Unknown Extant     Yes
Armenia Native Extant      
Australia Native Extant      
Austria Native Extant Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Belarus Native Extant Yes   Yes
Belgium Native Extant     Yes
Benin Unknown Extant   Yes Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant      
Botswana Native Extant      
Brunei Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes  
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Burundi Native Extant      
Cambodia Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Canada Vagrant Extant      
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant      
Central African Republic Native Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Comoros Vagrant Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes    
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes
Djibouti Native Extant   Yes Yes
Egypt Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant Yes    
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes    
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes
France Native Extant     Yes
Gabon Vagrant Extant      
Gambia Native Extant      
Georgia Native Extant     Yes
Germany Native Extant     Yes
Ghana Native Extant      
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant     Yes
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant   Yes  
Hungary Native Extant Yes   Yes
Iceland Native Extant Yes   Yes
India Native Extant      
Indonesia Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes  
Ireland Native Extant     Yes
Israel Native Extant   Yes  
Italy Native Extant     Yes
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Native Extant     Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant      
Kiribati Native Extant   Yes  
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant     Yes
Laos Unknown Extant     Yes
Latvia Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes
Liberia Native Extant   Yes  
Libya Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant Yes    
Luxembourg Native Extant     Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Madagascar Vagrant Extant      
Malawi Vagrant Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant   Yes  
Maldives Vagrant Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Malta Native Extant      
Marshall Islands Native Extant   Yes  
Mauritania Native Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes  
Moldova Native Extant Yes   Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant     Yes
Morocco Native Extant      
Mozambique Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Namibia Vagrant Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant     Yes
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant      
New Zealand Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Niger Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Native Extant Yes    
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palau Native Extant   Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes
Papua New Guinea Native Extant      
Philippines Native Extant      
Poland Native Extant Yes   Yes
Portugal Native Extant   Yes  
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vagrant Extant      
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes
Romania Native Extant Yes   Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes
Rwanda Native Extant   Yes  
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant     Yes
Seychelles Vagrant Extant      
Sierra Leone Native Extant      
Singapore Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant Yes    
Slovenia Native Extant      
Solomon Islands Native Extant      
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Vagrant Extant   Yes  
South Korea Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Native Extant     Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
St Kitts and Nevis Vagrant Extant      
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Vagrant Extant     Yes
Sudan Native Extant      
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant      
Sweden Native Extant Yes    
Switzerland Native Extant      
Syria Native Extant   Yes Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes    
Tanzania Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant   Yes  
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes Yes
Togo Native Extant   Yes  
Trinidad and Tobago Vagrant Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Turkey Native Extant   Yes  
Turkmenistan Native Extant      
Uganda Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant     Yes
USA Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Uzbekistan Native Extant      
Vanuatu Native Extant     Yes
Vietnam Native Extant   Yes  
Virgin Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant      
Western Sahara Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes
Zambia Native Extant      
Zimbabwe Vagrant Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak site factsheet
Australia Gulf Plains site factsheet
Belarus Arechaŭskaje site factsheet
Belarus Braslav lakes site factsheet
Belarus Lelchitsy-Ubort site factsheet
Belarus Liasnaja river site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Belarus Turaŭskaje balonnie site factsheet
Belgium Gebieden ten noorden van Turnhout en Ravels site factsheet
Belgium Polderkomplex site factsheet
Chad Lake Chad site factsheet
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley site factsheet
China (mainland) Coastal mudflat of Tianjin site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary site factsheet
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne site factsheet
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø site factsheet
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes site factsheet
France Basses Vallées Angevines site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban site factsheet
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne site factsheet
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon site factsheet
Gambia Tanbi wetland complex site factsheet
Greece Axios, Loudias, and Aliakmon estuaries site factsheet
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area site factsheet
Hungary Ecseg Pusztas of Dévaványa site factsheet
Hungary Hódmezővásárhely Pusztas site factsheet
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to site factsheet
Hungary Kis-Sárrét site factsheet
Iceland Austara Eylendid site factsheet
Iceland Hólmarnir site factsheet
Iceland Ósasvædi Ölfusár site factsheet
Iceland Skúmsstadavatn site factsheet
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park site factsheet
India Kaj Lake (Pipalava Bandharo) site factsheet
India Kunthur - Kallur Lakes site factsheet
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake) site factsheet
India Veeranam Lake site factsheet
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Indonesia Pesisir Pantai Jambi site factsheet
Indonesia Pesisir Riau Tenggara site factsheet
Indonesia Sembilang site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Susangerd marshes site factsheet
Iraq Attariya plains site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hammar site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Rayan and Umm Osbah site factsheet
Iraq Haur Uwainah site factsheet
Israel Carmel coast site factsheet
Kazakhstan Amangeldy site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Vicinity of Korgalzhyn village site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System site factsheet
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro site factsheet
Lithuania Flooded meadows arround the Senoji & Naujoji Rusne lakes site factsheet
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve site factsheet
Malaysia Matang coast site factsheet
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast site factsheet
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast site factsheet
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo site factsheet
Mali Lac Horo site factsheet
Mali Timisobo - Képagou site factsheet
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli site factsheet
Mauritania Chott Boul site factsheet
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama site factsheet
Netherlands Ilperveld, Varkensland and Twiske site factsheet
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen site factsheet
Netherlands Oostzanerveld site factsheet
Netherlands Oude Venen site factsheet
Netherlands Van Oordt's Mersken site factsheet
Netherlands Workumerwaard site factsheet
Netherlands Wormer-and Jisperveld site factsheet
Nigeria Hadejia-Nguru wetlands site factsheet
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Bubnow Marsh site factsheet
Poland Bzura River Valley site factsheet
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir site factsheet
Poland Kampinos forest site factsheet
Poland Kurpie Site site factsheet
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Bug river valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Notec River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Warta River Valley site factsheet
Poland Ner River Valley site factsheet
Poland Nida Rivar Valley site factsheet
Poland Notec river flood-plain site factsheet
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys site factsheet
Poland Pilica River Valley site factsheet
Poland Przemków ponds site factsheet
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley site factsheet
Poland Radlow Forest site factsheet
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir site factsheet
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley site factsheet
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley site factsheet
Poland Warta River Mouth site factsheet
Poland Wloszczowa Basin site factsheet
Portugal Sado estuary site factsheet
Portugal Tejo estuary site factsheet
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău site factsheet
Romania Belceşti reservoir site factsheet
Romania Bistreţ site factsheet
Romania Blahniţa site factsheet
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor site factsheet
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani site factsheet
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Homoroadelor site factsheet
Romania Dumbrăviţa - Rotbav - Măgura Codlei site factsheet
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare site factsheet
Romania Iazurile de pe Văile Ibănesei - Başeului - Podrigăi site factsheet
Romania Iernut fishponds - Cipău site factsheet
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds site factsheet
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu) site factsheet
Romania Lake Bugeac site factsheet
Romania Lake Mostiştea site factsheet
Romania Lake Oltina site factsheet
Romania Lake Strachina site factsheet
Romania Lunca Siretului Inferior site factsheet
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds site factsheet
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa site factsheet
Romania Vedea - Dunăre site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Khayryuzova bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Konstantin and Tugur bays site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Rekinninskaya bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake site factsheet
Russia (European) Bylinskaya site factsheet
Russia (European) Chonta site factsheet
Russia (European) Desna flood-plain near Trubchevsk site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Iput' river in vicinity of Kholevichami site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Manychstroi area site factsheet
Russia (European) Shabel'skaya sand-spit site factsheet
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Tsninski Forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Ul'skoye bog site factsheet
Russia (European) Upper Mologa river (Verestovo lake) site factsheet
Serbia Srednje Potamišje site factsheet
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake) site factsheet
South Korea Cheonsu Bay site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Namyang Bay site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island site factsheet
Spain Cádiz bay site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita site factsheet
Spain Valdehornillos-Santa Amalia site factsheet
Tanzania Singida lakes site factsheet
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand site factsheet
Tunisia Ichkeul site factsheet
Tunisia Kneiss site factsheet
Turkey Ceyhan Delta site factsheet
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows site factsheet
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Stokhod river valley site factsheet
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom Breydon Water site factsheet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours site factsheet
United Kingdom Dee Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Exe Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Humber Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Nene Washes site factsheet
United Kingdom Ouse Washes site factsheet
United Kingdom Poole Harbour site factsheet
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour site factsheet
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water site factsheet
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom The Swale site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tuyabuguz Reservoir site factsheet
Vietnam Binh Dai site factsheet
Vietnam Xuan Thuy site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas unset breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) unset non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture / Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Causing/Could cause fluct Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
None
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
None
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases / Least Weasel (Mustela nivalis) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases / Stoat (Mustela erminea) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of ground water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Flight paths Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Limosa limosa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and allies)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 7,180,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species