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Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,180,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 16,200,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good Estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.6 - - -
Population justification: The population is estimated to number 162,000-183,000 in Western Europe; 90,000-165,000 in eastern Europe; 25,000-100,000 in west-central Asia; 150,000 in central Asia and Siberia (Asian Waterbird Census unpublished data); 160,000 in the rest of Asia and Australia, and 47,000 (subspecies islandica) in the Faroe Islands and Iceland.
Trend justification: There is still some degree of uncertainty about the size and trend of some of the sub-populations. Nevertheless, looking at 'best' and 'worse' case scenarios, the available information suggests that the global population has probably declined by between 14% and 33% over the past 15 years (=3 generations). Assuming that the 'actual' trend lies somewhere between these extremes, it seems likely that the global population may have declined by c.25% since 1990. Thus the species's trend is currently best placed in the 20-29% band. This information is provided by I. Burfield in litt (2005), with reference to a spreadsheet of detailed calculations based on best-worse case scenarios using population estimates from Wetlands International (2006), and trend data from Birds in Europe 2, the Asian Water bird Census, Wetlands International and forum contributors. In Europe, trends since 1990 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes    
Albania Native Extant   Yes    
Algeria Native Extant        
Andorra Unknown Extant     Yes  
Armenia Native Extant        
Australia Native Extant        
Austria Native Extant Yes      
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Belarus Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Belgium Native Extant     Yes Yes
Benin Unknown Extant   Yes Yes  
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant        
Botswana Native Extant        
Brunei Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes    
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Burundi Native Extant        
Cambodia Native Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Canada Vagrant Extant        
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant        
Central African Republic Native Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Comoros Vagrant Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes      
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Djibouti Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant Yes      
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes      
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes  
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gabon Vagrant Extant        
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant     Yes  
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant     Yes  
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant   Yes    
Hungary Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Iceland Native Extant Yes   Yes  
India Native Extant        
Indonesia Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Iraq Native Extant   Yes    
Ireland Native Extant     Yes Yes
Israel Native Extant   Yes    
Italy Native Extant     Yes Yes
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Native Extant     Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kiribati Native Extant   Yes    
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant     Yes  
Laos Unknown Extant     Yes  
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes  
Liberia Native Extant   Yes    
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Native Extant     Yes  
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Madagascar Vagrant Extant        
Malawi Vagrant Extant        
Malaysia Native Extant   Yes    
Maldives Vagrant Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Marshall Islands Native Extant   Yes    
Mauritania Native Extant        
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes    
Moldova Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant     Yes Yes
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Namibia Vagrant Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant     Yes Yes
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant        
New Zealand Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Niger Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palau Native Extant   Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes  
Papua New Guinea Native Extant        
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Portugal Native Extant   Yes    
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Romania Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes Yes
Rwanda Native Extant   Yes    
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Seychelles Vagrant Extant        
Sierra Leone Native Extant        
Singapore Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant Yes      
Slovenia Native Extant        
Solomon Islands Native Extant        
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Vagrant Extant   Yes    
South Korea Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant     Yes Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant        
St Kitts and Nevis Vagrant Extant        
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Sudan Native Extant        
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Native Extant Yes      
Switzerland Native Extant        
Syria Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant   Yes    
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Togo Native Extant   Yes    
Trinidad and Tobago Vagrant Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Turkey Native Extant   Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant        
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant     Yes Yes
USA Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant        
Vanuatu Native Extant     Yes  
Vietnam Native Extant   Yes    
Virgin Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Zambia Native Extant        
Zimbabwe Vagrant Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak site factsheet
Australia Gulf Plains site factsheet
Belarus Arechaŭskaje site factsheet
Belarus Braslav lakes site factsheet
Belarus Lelchitsy-Ubort site factsheet
Belarus Liasnaja river site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Belarus Turaŭskaje balonnie site factsheet
Belgium Gebieden ten noorden van Turnhout en Ravels site factsheet
Belgium Polderkomplex site factsheet
Chad Lake Chad site factsheet
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley site factsheet
China (mainland) Coastal mudflat of Tianjin site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary site factsheet
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne site factsheet
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø site factsheet
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes site factsheet
France Basses Vallées Angevines site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban site factsheet
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne site factsheet
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon site factsheet
Gambia Tanbi wetland complex site factsheet
Greece Axios, Loudias, and Aliakmon estuaries site factsheet
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area site factsheet
Hungary Ecseg Pusztas of Dévaványa site factsheet
Hungary Hódmezővásárhely Pusztas site factsheet
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to site factsheet
Hungary Kis-Sárrét site factsheet
Iceland Austara Eylendid site factsheet
Iceland Hólmarnir site factsheet
Iceland Ósasvædi Ölfusár site factsheet
Iceland Skúmsstadavatn site factsheet
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park site factsheet
India Kaj Lake (Pipalava Bandharo) site factsheet
India Kunthur - Kallur Lakes site factsheet
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake) site factsheet
India Veeranam Lake site factsheet
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Indonesia Pesisir Pantai Jambi site factsheet
Indonesia Pesisir Riau Tenggara site factsheet
Indonesia Sembilang site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Susangerd marshes site factsheet
Iraq Attariya Plains site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hammar site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Rayan and Umm Osbah site factsheet
Iraq Haur Uwainah site factsheet
Ireland Ballymacoda site factsheet
Ireland Blackwater estuary site factsheet
Ireland Cork Harbour site factsheet
Ireland Dungarvan Harbour site factsheet
Ireland Inner Clonakilty Bay site factsheet
Ireland Lough Derg (River Shannon) site factsheet
Ireland Rahasane turlough site factsheet
Ireland River Blackwater callows site factsheet
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon site factsheet
Ireland River Shannon callows: Portumna-Athlone site factsheet
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries site factsheet
Ireland The Cull and Killag site factsheet
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs site factsheet
Israel Carmel coast site factsheet
Kazakhstan Amangeldy site factsheet
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Vicinity of Korgalzhyn village site factsheet
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System site factsheet
Lithuania Flooded meadows arround the Senoji & Naujoji Rusne lakes site factsheet
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve site factsheet
Malaysia Matang coast site factsheet
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast site factsheet
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast site factsheet
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo site factsheet
Mali Lac Horo site factsheet
Mali Timisobo - Képagou site factsheet
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli site factsheet
Mauritania Chott Boul site factsheet
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama site factsheet
Netherlands Ilperveld, Varkensland and Twiske site factsheet
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen site factsheet
Netherlands Oostzanerveld site factsheet
Netherlands Oude Venen site factsheet
Netherlands Van Oordt's Mersken site factsheet
Netherlands Workumerwaard site factsheet
Netherlands Wormer-and Jisperveld site factsheet
Nigeria Hadejia-Nguru wetlands site factsheet
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Bubnow Marsh site factsheet
Poland Bzura River Valley site factsheet
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir site factsheet
Poland Kampinos forest site factsheet
Poland Kurpie Site site factsheet
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Bug river valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Notec River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Warta River Valley site factsheet
Poland Ner River Valley site factsheet
Poland Nida Rivar Valley site factsheet
Poland Notec river flood-plain site factsheet
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys site factsheet
Poland Pilica River Valley site factsheet
Poland Przemków ponds site factsheet
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley site factsheet
Poland Radlow Forest site factsheet
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir site factsheet
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley site factsheet
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley site factsheet
Poland Warta River Mouth site factsheet
Poland Wloszczowa Basin site factsheet
Portugal Sado estuary site factsheet
Portugal Tejo estuary site factsheet
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău site factsheet
Romania Belceşti reservoir site factsheet
Romania Bistreţ site factsheet
Romania Blahniţa site factsheet
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor site factsheet
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani site factsheet
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Homoroadelor site factsheet
Romania Dumbrăviţa - Rotbav - Măgura Codlei site factsheet
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare site factsheet
Romania Iazurile de pe Văile Ibănesei - Başeului - Podrigăi site factsheet
Romania Iernut fishponds - Cipău site factsheet
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds site factsheet
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu) site factsheet
Romania Lake Bugeac site factsheet
Romania Lake Mostiştea site factsheet
Romania Lake Oltina site factsheet
Romania Lake Strachina site factsheet
Romania Lunca Siretului Inferior site factsheet
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds site factsheet
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa site factsheet
Romania Vedea - Dunăre site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Khayryuzova bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Konstantin and Tugur bays site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Rekinninskaya bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake site factsheet
Russia (European) Bylinskaya site factsheet
Russia (European) Chonta site factsheet
Russia (European) Desna flood-plain near Trubchevsk site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Iput' river in vicinity of Kholevichami site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Manychstroi area site factsheet
Russia (European) Shabel'skaya sand-spit site factsheet
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Tsninski Forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Ul'skoye bog site factsheet
Russia (European) Upper Mologa river (Verestovo lake) site factsheet
Serbia Srednje Potamišje site factsheet
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake) site factsheet
South Korea Cheonsu Bay site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Namyang Bay site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island site factsheet
Spain Cádiz bay site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain Guadalquivir marshes site factsheet
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita site factsheet
Spain Valdehornillos-Santa Amalia site factsheet
Tanzania Singida lakes site factsheet
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand site factsheet
Tunisia Ichkeul site factsheet
Tunisia Kneiss site factsheet
Turkey Ceyhan Delta site factsheet
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows site factsheet
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Stokhod river valley site factsheet
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom Breydon Water site factsheet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours site factsheet
United Kingdom Dee Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Exe Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Humber Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Nene Washes site factsheet
United Kingdom Ouse Washes site factsheet
United Kingdom Poole Harbour site factsheet
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour site factsheet
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water site factsheet
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom The Swale site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tuyabuguz Reservoir site factsheet
Vietnam Binh Dai site factsheet
Vietnam Xuan Thuy site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas unset breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) unset non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture / Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Causing/Could cause fluct Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
None
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
None
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases / Least Weasel (Mustela nivalis) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases / Stoat (Mustela erminea) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of ground water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Flight paths Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Limosa limosa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 7,180,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species