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Spectacled Petrel Procellaria conspicillata

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable D2 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2010 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2007 Vulnerable
2005 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 8,990,000 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 9 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 20000 medium Estimated 2010
Population trend Increasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 25.9 - - -
Population justification: 14,400 nesting burrows were counted on Inaccessible Island in 2009-2010 (Ryan et al. 2011). Assuming 90% occupancy, this equates to a breeding population of approximately 20,000 birds. The population is estimated at around 38,000; 7,000 individuals were present at sea off Brazil based on survey data from 1997-1999 (L. Bugoni in litt. 2006).
Trend justification: Between 1999-2004, the numbers of breeders may have increased by up to 45% (Ryan et al. 2006), but the toll taken by bycatch in longline fisheries is poorly understood. Bycatch may affect juveniles disproportionately more than adults; a bias that will not be reflected at the breeding grounds for several years.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Angola Vagrant Extant        
Argentina Native Extant   Yes    
Australia Vagrant Extant        
Brazil Native Extant   Yes    
Namibia Native Extant   Yes    
South Africa Native Extant   Yes    
St Helena (to UK) Native Extant Yes      
Uruguay Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
St Helena (to UK) Inaccessible Island site factsheet
Uruguay Atlantic Ocean and Rio de la Plata mouth site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Altitude 380 - 500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Pig (Sus domesticus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Whole (>90%) Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified rats (Rattus spp.) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Procellaria conspicillata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Procellariidae (Petrels, Shearwaters)
Species name author Gould, 1844
Population size 20000 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 8,990,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species